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S: Plain Indians

BC: The End

FC: PLAINS | Julie Fishbaum Sam Oziel Racheli Smilovici

1: Table of Contents Arrival of The Europeans Page 2 Art Page 4 Clothing Page 6 Food Sources and Examples Page 8 Geographic Location Page 10 Origin Beliefs Page 12 Recreation and Games Page 14 Role of Men Page 16 Role of Women Page 18 Shelter Page 20 Social Structure Page 22 Special Dances Page 24 Transportation Page 26 Weapons Page 28 Bibliography Page 30

2: ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS | When the people first arrived, they thought they were in India. They gave a name to the Natives, that was Indians. The name that they gave, stuck for nearly 500 years! Some groups chose to co-exist with the Europeans and they adapted themselves to a more European living style. Others wanted to preserve their traditional way of life and moved to areas unwanted by the Europeans. Villages were wiped out by diseases such as measles, smallpox, cholera and pneumonia. Others, forced to leave their traditional hunting and farming lands found it difficult to re-establish themselves elsewhere and suffered malnutrition and death.

3: In this picture it shows the Europeans with the Natives watching them arrive.

4: Art The First Peoples of the Plains took great care with their artistic decoration, the positive (coloured) and negative (not-coloured). The symmetrical patterns reinforce cultural principles of co-existing in a balance with the entire world. The Natives made paints by using berry juice. Painting on tepees often depicted the earthy world and the spiritual world with paintings of animals, and the celestial symbols. Paintings were usually about battle or they painted the weapons used in battle. The Natives carved pipes, spoons, and bowls with careful precision. The women did the beadwork. Quillwork was the oldest type of embroidery. To collect quills, women threw blankets on the porcupine as defense. Then porcupine’s quills rise into the blanket. Porcupine quills were dyed with berry juice. Quills were twisted, wrapped, and sewn into designs for clothing, moccasins, bags, baskets, and pipe stems. Quills can be flattened by drawing them through the teeth. I think that the Natives taught us a lot of different ways to do art.

5: In this picture there are tipis and on them are paintings of animals. In this picture you see a painting of war.

6: Clothing The clothing of the Plains people was based on tradition and personal preference. Men wore shirts, breechcloths and full-length leggings. Women wore short leggings and dresses. Dress decorations and designs were different from tribe to tribe. The slip was the most common type of dress. The slip is tied up around the neck and under the arms. Most jewelery was made from claws, shells, teeth, or feathers. The Natives wore ponchos for warmth. Coats were made from all types of fur like deer skin, moose hide, or buffalo hide. In war, chiefs wore the eagle headdress with feathers that leaned downwards. The Natives also wore belts, headgear and necklaces. The Natives had an interesting selection of clothing but in 100 years from now people will think ours are weird too.

7: In this picture it shows the clothing of the Sioux and how it changed over the years. In this picture it shows moccasins. In this picture it shows stone jewelery.

8: Food The Plains Natives got their food by hunting, growing or harvesting it, some tribes grew crops such as maize (corn), beans and pumpkins while other tribes gathered wild fruits and vegetables. Food was often traded between tribes. The most common food in the plains was buffalo. The Natives got their buffalo by doing the "buffalo jump”. The buffalo jump was when someone would chase a buffalo off a cliff and when the buffalo would fall and die ,the other person would go and collect the dead animal. The Plains Natives usually dried their food to preserve it for long periods of time. Parfleeches (a bag or box made from rawhide with the hair removed) ,these parfleeches were usually decorated.

9: This picture holds a perfect example of the buffalo jump; this is how they got all of their material

10: jdjdjjsjsj | Geographic Location The geographic location of the Plains Natives includes the landforms, vegetation, climate and natural resources. The landforms were made up of the hills and the lowlands. The vegetation included the willow tree, the trembling aspen and the bur oak. The climate they had was cold winters and hot summers.In the winter they could expect to have around 400 cm of snow fall each winter and in the summer they had 30-40 degree weather. Their natural resources were minerals, geology, agriculture but to be more specific the natural resources for every column are as follows: minerals such as sulphur, potash and gypsum.

11: For geology they had Cenozoic, Palezoic and Mesozoic. For agriculture they had dairy, cattle, poultry, flowers, mushrooms, maple products, honey, beeswax, fur-bearing animals, pelt and goats. | This shows geographic location of the Plains natives, including all of the tribes that lived in the territory.

12: Origin Beliefs/Legends The Natives believed in a great god called the “Wakan Tanka” meaning the Great Spirit. They believed all animals, plants, trees, stones, and clouds possessed spirits. They believed earth was the mother of all spirits and that they could each be prayed to. People who were blessed or wakan were called Shamans, and were healers that received a sign from the Great Spirit. They believed g-ds showed themselves as a form of the sun, the stars, and the moon. They believed by opening and closing their eyes, lightning can be caused. The Natives had interesting beliefs, but if you think about it, so do we.

13: In this picture there is a father telling his kids a legend.

14: RECREATION AND GAMES The Native people like to sew beads on their clothes. They would also like to make yarn from buffalo hair, have pow-wows for special events, and would dance and pray to the “Great Spirits.” During the summer, they would do the Sundance and would do the same dance moves for 4 days. They would not eat nor drink. They tried to look at the sun as much as they could.

15: This picture shows some of the pieces used in games by the Plains Natives

16: Role of Men The men of the Plains' family were usually the hunters and warriors for the Plains territory; they made weapons for their tribe. The majority of the men practiced polygamy (where men marry more than one woman).

17: This is a picture of a man who is camouflaged as he is hunting an animal

18: ROLE OF WOMAN The woman’s work is never done. They would cook for the men and the children. They would also sew the clothing, make the tools, tend the children and packed when it was time to move. They were treated as powerless slaves. They were in charge of constructing the hauling wood and water to the campsite. The role of Plains Natives' women was to support the hunters and warriors; a task that involved considerable labour. Earlier, the Plains Natives' women had no voice in tribal affairs, but they could run home where they would have certain rights. For one thing the women decided where their tepee was to be pitched in the camp circle, and for another, they virtually owned all of its contents, as well as the horses they packed when camp was moved. According to historical accounts, if a woman had a grievance, she was likely to speak up and stand her ground.

19: This picture shows the clothing that the women made from buffalo hides and deerskin.

20: Shelter The Plains Natives lived in teepee's. Teepee's were made out of buffalo hide and wooden poles. Teepee's were warm in the winter and cool in the summer. (It’s like free air conditioning and heating for your house!) The doors for a tepee are a round opening, which faced east (toward the rising sun). In the middle of the teepee was a small fire which was used for heating and cooking. They usually slept on buffalo robes on the floor of the tepee. The Plains Natives thought that their teepee was very important and was often decorated. The paintings were often religiously symbolic. The women were usually in charge of putting up and taking down the teepees. The tribes that moved from place to place were called nomads, some tribes didn't move at all so they lived in grass lodges. These lodges were impossible to move from place to place without it collapsing, the lodges were dome-shaped and covered with earth.

21: This is a picture of a nomad tribe in their teepees.

22: Social Structure/Leadership Within each nomadic group, there would be a band chief. The band chief was supported if the band could catch enough game for food, and were protected from enemies. Chiefs would advise. All leaders were wise and patient or had other good qualities of leadership. Most leaders also had a good deal of health. The way the leader punished people was by public shame. Each leader had a certain power like the keeper of the whip or the keeper of the knife. Leaders were often prophets, elders, warriors, or wealthy and they each performed special duties. Overall, I think that the leaders were wise, mature, and a good example for all.

23: In this picture there is a chief that is wearing a headdress.

24: Special Dances Dances were usually the response to a vision, plea, or a prayer to the spirits. They had the sun dance, the grass dance, the victory dance, the jingle dance, the rain dance, and the hunting dance. The sun dance was a festival dance of the Plains Peoples. In the grass dance, dancers stomped on grass, therefore they called it the grass dance. The victory dance is done to celebrate a small or large victory. The jingle dance is an interesting,unique dance delivered through a vision. The rain dance is known as the snake dance. They pray and they dance. Blessings come through the crown of the head therefore you may not wear head coverings while dancing. In the dance people represented clouds. In the hunting dance movements tell of warrior actions like hunting, stalking the game, and battling an enemy.

25: In this picture you see people doing the rain dance. | In this picture you see men doing the hunting dance and changing positions from hunting, to stalking the game.

26: SPECIAL EVENTS When a boy would become a man, they would have to enter a sweet lodge to seek a spirit who would protect him threw out his life. They let the stones heat up inside the lodge, and water would pour on them and the boy would become purified by the steam. Afterwards, he would just into pool of cold water.He would then be led into the forest for a few days while seeking vision. The members of the tribes would retrieved him and he would visit shaman with vision. The village feasted in ceremony which was held during warmer months , when nomadic groups united.

28: Transportation There were many ways that the Natives, but most of the people traveled by foot and in the winter they traveled with snowshoes. When people wanted to cross rivers they used something called a bull boat. A bull boat is a boat with the ends sticking up like a bull's horns. When people wanted to transport items they would use a travois. A travois is a basket or bin that is pulled by a dog or a horse. But people usually preferred a horse opposed to a dog, because horses were much stronger and could carry more and heavier items than a dog. Early Spanish explorers brought horses to North America but the horses escaped and went north, later to be captured by the Plains Natives. Hunters were very fond of these new animals and preferred to hunt with the horses because they were much faster than them on foot.

29: In this picture there is a man being pulled by dogs for transportation.

30: WEAPONS The Plains Peoples made shields from toughened hide. Then they painted on symbols. The Tomahawk was a tool they used as a peace offering and were very important to a lot of people for many more reasons. They used a coup stick to fight an enemy in battle. The Pipe Tomahawk was used for smoking tobacco. The arrows point smaller then spears, penetrated skin more when fired by a bow. You needed great strength to use the arrow.

31: This is a Tomahawk

32: Martin, Phillip. “Fine Arts.” 10 February 2012. | Bibliography | “Plains.” 2012. 21 February 2012.

33: Glazner, Chris, Solis, Roxanne and Weinman, Geoff. “Pow Wow Dance Styles.” 1996. 16 March 2012. | “Religion.” 2010. 21 February 2012.

34: “The Plains People.” 2007. 13 February 2012. | Zellers, Bridgette. “The Plains Indians.” 22 April 1998. 13 February 2012. | “Shelter, Food Sources and examples, Role of Men and Transportation”. Goldi Productions Ltd.

35: Flach, Shawn. “Weapons of the Plain Indians”. February 08, 2004 . 4 Apr. 2012. | “Women's Work Is Never Done” 2 April.< http://www.bluecloud.org/work.htm.l >

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