FC: Progressive Era by: Ann Udenenwu February 4, 2013 7th Period
1: Table of Contents Muckrakers: Page 2&3 The Goals of Progressives: Page 4&5 Progressivism Under Roosevelt: Page 6&7 Progressivism During The TAFT Presidency: Page 8&9
3: Muckrakers were investigative journalists or writers who exposed the corruption or evils of society in the Progressive era. Some muckrakers were progressives who sought reform and change; for example, Jacob Riis wrote on the deplorable conditions in housing with the intent to change conditions for immigrants. Similarly, Upton Sinclair exposed the meatpacking process which prompted change in the form of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Other muckrakers were just interested in selling a sensationalist story to the American public. The most popular aspects of society subject to the muckraker's scrutiny were crime, graft, housing, scandals, labor, monopolies, population density, treatment of immigrants, treatment of women, and quality of food. Notable muckrakers include Jacob Riis, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, and Helen Hunt Jackson
4: The Goals Of The Progressives
5: Regulation of unfair business practices by big business Rationalization of tax structure, particularly introduction of tax based on income rather than property. End of corruption in government including law enforcement and management of public services. Home rule or decentralization of governance by granting rights to cities to govern themselves. | Greater right of voters, for example, right to recall persons from public offices, and to select candidates for election, instead of these candidates being nominated by delegates to political party conventions. Election of US senators directly by people instead of by state legislature. Improving conditions of housing particularly in crowded slums. Improving conditions of workers in mines and factories. This included improvement in areas like working hours and conditions, safety, and wages.
6: Progressivism Under Roosevelt
7: Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) was the 26th president of the United States and a proponent of the "New Nationalist" variety of Progressivism. A master of populist rhetoric and public charm, Roosevelt quickly tapped into the widespread fervor for reform. His administration pursued some widely publicized antitrust cases against large companies like Northern Securities and the Swift Beef Trust, but for all his aggressive rhetoric, Roosevelt actually went after fewer monopolies than his successor, William Howard Taft Throughout his administration, Roosevelt attempted to strike a balance between employers and employees in labor disputes and pledged to give Americans a "Square Deal" that prized a person's character above his class. He made notable strides in the cause of conservationism, dedicating many National Parks and restricting private development on government lands. After voluntarily stepping down from office in 1908, Roosevelt became increasingly disenchanted with William Howard Taft, his hand-picked successor to the presidency. He challenged Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912, and when he lost, he started his own Progressive (or "Bull Moose") Party, positioning himself as the more aggressive trust-busting candidate. While Roosevelt's New Nationalist policy accepted economic concentration as an inevitability in America's rapidly industrializing society, Democrat Woodrow Wilson pledged to destroy the trusts altogether in order to restore competition to the marketplace. Roosevelt lost the election but remained a legendary figure in American political history.
9: William Howard Taft, who had served in Roosevelt’s cabinet, was elected president in 1908 with Roosevelt’s support. Taft continued many of the programs that Roosevelt had initiated. His administration filed nearly a hundred lawsuits against trusts. He set aside more public lands as reserves. He supported the elimination of child labor. He signed the Department of Labor into law. Under Taft, Congress passed laws mandating safer working conditions in mines and an 8-hour workday for the laborers in any company that did business with the federal government. Under Taft, the Sixteenth Amendment, providing for a federal income tax proportional to the amount a person earned, was proposed; it was ratified shortly after he left office.
11: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) was the 28th President of the United States, serving two terms from 1913-1919. As president of Princeton University and later as governor of New Jersey, Wilson was a leading Progressive, arguing for a stronger central government and fighting for anti-trust legislation and labor rights. As president of the United States, he passed important legislation on those and many other issues, narrowly winning reelection in 1916 after pledging to keep America out of World War I. Wilson's foreign policy was noted for its idealistic humanitarianism; his Fourteen Pointsa statement of national objectives that envisioned a new international order after World War Iultimately failed, but was one of the clearest expressions of interventionist American values. Wilson suffered a severe strokes during his second term in office and died in 1924. Wilson ran in 1912 under a platform known as the "New Freedom," in which he pledged to reintroduce real competition to the marketplace by destroying monopolistic economic trusts. In practice, however, his actions quickly came to resemble the "regulated monopoly" of Republican candidate Theodore Roosevelt, and few trusts were dissolved during his tenure. Though he achieved passage of a 1914 measure to create a Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the regulatory body became co-opted by business interests just like the Interstate Commerce Commission before it. Wilson lowered the tariff, introduced the income tax, and instituted the Federal Reserve System to reform the national economy.
12: Progressive Era Amendments (16th 17th 18th and 19th)
13: 16th Amendment ratified in 1913, authorizing Congress to levy a tax on incomes. | 17th Amendment ratified in 1913, providing for the election of two U.S. senators from each state by popular vote and for a term of six years. | 18th Amendment ratified in 1918, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of alcoholic beverages for consumption: repealed in 1933. | ratified in 1920, guaranteeing women the right to vote.
14: Progressives moved to enable the citizenry to rule more directly and circumvent political bosses; California, Wisconsin and Oregon took the lead. California and Oregon established the Initiative, Referendum, and Recall. About 16 states began using Primary elections. Many cities set up municipal reference bureaus to study the budgets and administrative structures of local governments. | Corrupt Politicians " ---Essentially, Progressivism was an attack upon private power, reasserting the public's interest and decrying the "special" interests, sometimes in extreme terms. Yet the doctrines of Progressivism led to justification and acceptance of the evils it set out to destroy. | Progressive Era Report Card
15: Few changes had more impact than the emergence of modern medicine. The death rate began to drop dramatically in the early 20th century because of public health measures that forced change on an often unwilling public. | The Interstate Commerce Act (1887) and the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) helped investors | Women got the right to vot | Senators became elected by the people rather than being picked by the governor of the state.