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S: The four river valley civilizations

FC: The four river valley civilizations Patrick Greene

1: Pages 2-3 Mesopotamia Pages 4-5 Nile river valley pages 6-7 Indus river Valley Pages 8-9 Chinese river Valley

2: 1.The rivers that make up Mesopotamia are the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 2.The geography of Mesopotamia was rivers and streams, the Sumerian people built the first cities along with irrigation canals which were separated by vast stretches of open desert or swamp. 3.In Mesopotamia The cities along the rivers were called city-states. These city-states where always at war.

3: 4.The Babylonian empire reached its peak during the reign of Hammurabi. 5.Sumer developed the first economy, but the Babylonians developed the earliest system of economics. It was a more "anything goes" approach. 6.the Babylonian Empire was ruled by Hammurabi and they had laws called Hammurabi's code. they where very harsh punishment and people did not test the law because it was strictly enforced. 7.the Mesopotamia was manly polytheistic which means they worshiped more than one god. 8.the Mesopotamia is called by scholars the Fertile Crescent. because it is shaped like a crescent and is very fertile. 9.Scholars in Mesopotamia invented a type of writing that was called cuneiform which means wedged shaped. It was like the first ever recite. 10.the word Mesopotamia is Greek for "land between the rivers.

4: 1.The Nile river valley was run by rulers called Pharaohs. the people thought the Pharaohs where part man part god. 2.In the Egyptians cult, death was more important than there life. they where buried in tombs called pyramids. 3.They had a writing called hieroglyphics which was a writing that used pictures. 4.Before Egyptians were buried they had to be mummified to preserve there body for the after life.

5: 5.mummification involves embalming and drying the corps to prevent it from decaying. 6.the Nile river Valley was also polytheistic like the Mesopotamia which means they believed in more than one god. 7.the Nile river valley has a hot and dry climate, and is completely surrounded by desert. 8.As in Mesopotamia yearly flooding brought the water and rich soil so they could farm good soil. 9.there type of government in which rule is based on religious authority is called a theocracy. 10.Although hieroglyphs were first written on stone and clay, as in Mesopotamia, the Egyptians soon invented a better writing surface-papyrus reed. These grew in the marshy delta. the Egyptians split the reeds into narrow strips, placed them crosswise in two layers, dampened them, and then pressed them.

6: 1.There are two meager river valleys in India the Ganges and Indus river valley civilizations. 2.India is land locked they cant go north to china because of the Himalayas. And at the time they don't realy have the option of sea. 3.the Indus river valley was the first place to have plumbing and sewer system. 4.they invented the grid system that is still used today to build towns. 5.around this time is when the Hindu religion came about.

7: 6.They have seasonal monsoons. the dry monsoon is from October to May. The wet monsoon is from June to September. 7.Around 2500B.C. while the Egyptians were building pyramids, people in the Indus river valley were laying the bricks for India's first cities. | They built strong levees, or earthen walls, to keep water out of the cities. when these were not enough, they constructed human-made islands to rise the cities above possible floodwaters. 8.various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta and bronze. 9.Terracotta means baked earth. the people in the Indus river valley would make sculptures out of this. 10.The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology.

8: 1.The Chinese river valleys where ruled by dynasties which were a series or rulers from the same family. 2.These rulers where called Emperors. 3.The people of China would worship there ancestors. The Emperors said that they had the mandate of heaven which said they ruled because the gods allowed them to. 4.To govern this vast area, it gave control over different regions to members of the royal family and other trusted nobles. This established a system called feudalism. 5.The Emperors said they had the mandate of heaven which means the gods aloud them to be rulers and you don't question the gods.

9: 6.The family was central to Chinese society. The most important virtue was respect to ones parents. The elder men in the family controlled the family's property and made important decisions. Women, on the other hand, were treated as inferiors. They were expected to obey their fathers and husbands, and later their own sons. | 7.The two mane river valleys in china are the Yellow river valley and the Yangtze River valley. 8.The Chinese system of writing had one major advantage. People in all parts of china could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoken languages were different. 9.Through the sprites of the ancestors, the Shang consulted the gods. The Shang worshiped a supreme god Shang Di, as well as many lesser gods. Shang kings consulted the gods through the use of oracle bones. 10.Oracle bones where animal bones and tortoise shells on which priest had scratched questions for the gods. After doing that the priest applied a hot poker to it, which caused it to crack. The priest would then interpret the cracks to see how the gods had answered.

10: backgammon is the oldest game ever and was invented by the Mesopotamians | Mesopotamian Ziggurat | This is the Nile | this is how the people live next to the Nile

11: the Indus river valley | the Indus grid system. | the Chinese river valley | the yellow river

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