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S: The Four River Valley Civilizations

FC: The Four River Valley Civilizations | By: Isaac Wright Published: September 9, 2010 Editor: Mrs. Bartlett (1st)

1: Table Of Contents | Title Page Page 1 Table of Contents Page 2 Ancient Egyptian Civilization Pages 2-3 Ancient Chinese Civilization Pages 4-5 Mesopotamia Pages 6-7 Indus Valley Civilization Pages 8-9 Fun Facts Pages 10-11

2: Ancient Egyptian Civilization | Government: Ancient Egyptian Civilization, also known as Egypt, had a government similar to a monarchy. The pharaoh, or king of Egypt, ruled the civilization. Some seen the pharaoh as a god or divine figure, which is theocracy. Writing: Hieroglyphics was the writing system of the Ancient Egyptian Civilization. The Egyptians created, used the writing for the tombs of pharaohs and for the descents who could've afford it, and placed the writing on tablets as their way of communicating to one another. Technology: The Egyptians used papryus as paper, built pyramids for the pharaohs, and practiced mummification; for they believed that mummifying their king would take him to the afterlife. Also, the Egyptians, thanks to their knowledge of astronomy, created the firsts 365 day calender. Geography: Though surrounded by desert land the Egyptians thrived throughout the land, relying on the Nile River for transportation and agricultural/economical use. When the Nile river floods, it leaves behind a dark rich soil called silt. With silt, the Egyptians used the rich soil to grow crops and raise animals.

3: Religion: The religion of the Egyptians was a polytheistic one, meaning multiple gods. Ra, the God of Sun, is one of the important gods the Egyptians worship. Social Class: 1st: Pharaohs/Queens- High authority, ruler of all land and access to anything they wish. 2nd: Ruling Class- Relating to the king's authority 3rd: Craftsman- Makes weapons, tools, and decorates the tomb. 4th: Farmers- Made vast majority of the population and produced food for themselves as well as the civilization. 5th: Marginalized Groups- little is known about this group, but scientist believed the group was to be involved in battles/war. 6th: Slaves- Were used and sold to build pyramids.

4: Ancient Chinese Civilization | Government: The government of the Ancient Chinese Civilization, or China, was a government ruled by an emperor (mandate of heaven), for the civilization itself was an empire. Writing: Similar to form of hieroglyphics, except for sound, the Chinese used characters to represent words. Technology: The Chinese Civilization were the first to use bronze and iron, from the Bronze Age, as well as inventing and using flood control, silk, and roads. Geography: With the Gobi Desert to the north and the Himalayas to the south, the Chinese revolved around their two major rivers, the Yellow and Yangtze. From which, they've used the rivers for transportation, and agricultural/economical use. Religion: The Chinese believed in spirits and that their ancestors would bring fortune/blessings and curses to those upon them. Instead of praying to God(s), the Chinese prayed to their ancestors for guidance.

5: Social Class: 1st: Emperor/Empress- Ruled all of the land and had open access to all. 2nd: Shi (Gentry Scholars)- Were never wealthy, they're so high-ranked because of the respect for their knowledge. 3rd: Nong (Peasant Farmers)- Like the Shi the farmers were landholders, and farming was a vital role to the Civilization's rise. The farmers were valuable to the society, not only by producing food but also by paying land taxes. This was a main source of where their money came from. 4th: Gong (Merchants)- Not really having any respect, the Gong were lowered in self-esteem and confidence because they only transport and trade goods made by others, rather than producing them themselves.

6: Mesopotamia | Government: The Mesopotamian government was ruled by kings. Their laws, majority of, were from Hammurabi's codes. Hammurabi was one of the many kings that ruled Mesopotamia. Writing: The written language of Mesopotamia would be cuneiform, which is a system of writing in wedge-shaped letters: invented by the Sumerians around 3'ooo B.C. Technology: The Mesopotamians were one of the first users, including China, of the Bronze Age. The Mesopotamians also invented irrigation, flood control, water storage, glass/lamp making, and metal/copper working. Geography: The word "Mesopotamia" means "land between two rivers". With limited natural resources, the Mesopotamians relied on the silt produced from the floods of the Euphrates and Tigris River. Due to the silt supply for rivers, agriculture had became a major role of the civilization. Religion: Like Egypt, the religion of the Mesopotamian were polytheistic. They believed that the world was a flat disc. Above it, heaven, and around it space

7: Social Classes: 1st: Kings, Priests, and Nobles- Also consisted of government officials and soldiers, They keep the area in order and protect the land of invasion. 2nd: Merchants, Teachers Laborers, Farmers, and Craftsmen- Had the Approval to do whatever, within the laws of Hammurabi, owned slaves, and were respected/paid. 3rd: Slaves- Worked for higher-ranked civilians, wasn't paid/respected, and had no rights whatsoever.

8: Indus Valley Civilization | Government: Little is known about the government of the Indus Valley, or present day India. But, from the scientists' research and studies, India has a strong, well-organized central government through the Indians' sophisticated city-planning and major buildings in the interior of cities. Religion also played a key role on ho0w the government was operated. Writing: Based on their evidence, which were Indus symbols found on pottery, etc., most scientists hypothesized that the Indus writing system was a variety of non-language sign system. Some claim that the symbols were for economical use, but all these claims are questionable. Technology: The technology the Indians had, in their time, were superbly advanced. With plumbing/sewage systems, cities planned on a grid system, and from children playing with toys to women wearing lipstick. Geography: Between the Indus and Ganges rivers, India had a rich land for agricultural use. Also known as a sub-continent, India has seasonal monsoons that be beneficial or devastating and has the Himalayas to the South.

9: Religion: The Indus Valley Civilization was the beginnings of Hinduism (their dominant religion in present day India), Buddhism, and Jainism. These religions are the main religions practiced in India. Social Class: The women of ancient India didn't have the right to do anything without the presence or permission of a man. Other than the fact that the lowest class earned money and men were the head of everything known there, India's social levels were similar to the Mesopotamians'.

10: Fun Facts To Know About Each Civilization: | Egypt: 1) The entire mummification process takes 70days to full-fill. 2) The most well known pyramids of Egypt are the Giza pyramids. 3) Of all pharaohs, King Tut's the most popular, thought to be murdered by his servants. 4) Papryus is a substance extracted from the plant of the same name. China: 1) The Chinese invented gun powder, the compass,paper, and silk that are still, all, used today. 2) In the construction of the Great Wall, people who died while building the wall were used as "filling" within the walls. 3) China, today, has about 20% of the world's population (over 1.3 billion) 4) The Great Wall can be seen from space. Mesopotamia: 1) Mesopotamian religion didn't believe in the after-life. They thought that all people, good or bad, will turn to ghosts and eat dirt. 2) Mesopotamia's modern-day Iraq. 3) The rich used purple dye to color clothing, since the only clothing were bland and non-colored. 4) The Mesopotamians get the color from the snails in their area.

11: India: 1) The main foods the Indians ate were wheat and rice. Every now and then they'll eat pork, beef, chicken, and sheep. 2) The game of chess was invented in India 3) Also invented Algebra, Trigonometry, and Calculus 4) The art of yoga was invented in India.

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