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S: River Valley Civilizations

FC: River Valley Civilizations | By Brock Smith

1: Table of Contents MESOPOTAMIA Geography Writing System Code of Hammurabi Gods EGYPT Geography Ancient King Writing System Mummification INDUS Geography Excavation Discoveries Village of Harappa Mohenjo-daro CHINA Geography Ancestor Worship Mandate of Heaven The Qin & Shang Dynasties

2: MESOPOTAMIA During 8000 and 3200 B.C. clay tokens were used by the Mesopotamins to count their goods. From 3100 B.C. each person was required to record their name and goods. This form of writing developed into cuneiform. The Code of Hammurabi, written by King Hammurabi was one of the world's first rule books. | Geography The word "Mesopotamia" is a Greek word meaning "land between rivers". This region is located in what is now modern day Syria, Iraq, and Turkey. This area was flooded at least once a year by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The land is consider fertile for growing barley and wheat.

3: Marduk & Tiamat Gods To the left pictures of Marduk and below Tiamat. Marduk was the Babylon Boss and custodian of the Tablets of Destiny. He was defined as a force to be reckoned with. Tiamat was primordial dragon goddess of creative chaos. It was said that she lived in salt water below the mists of time. When left alone she became angry and ripped up the creations of other gods. | Gods The people believed in a polytheism system. The belief of multiple Gods. Some of their Gods included: TIAMAT, ISHATAR, MARDUK, ANU, APSU, HUMBARA, ENK, GIGLAMESH, KING U, AND INANNA. Mesopotamian legends are included in the poem The Epic of Gilgamesh.

4: EGYPT The Gift of the Nile, it is called this because the richness of the soil deposited from the Nile River when the banks overflowed during July rains. Rich back mud called silt was left behind in October after the river receded. The land was abundance for growing barley and wheat. The Egyptians worshiped the Nile as if it were a god. Egypt was ruled by pharaohs. Pyramids were created for the royal family. Top left picture of Rameses III. Rameses III ruled between 1187 - 56 B.C. He as considered the last great Pharaoh (king).

5: Egyptians developed a form of writing called hieroglyphics. This is came from the Greek words hieros and gluph, "sacred carving", is the meaning of these words. The Egyptians invented a surface for writing called papyrus. It was made from papyrus plants and was formed to make a sheet, similar to paper. | Mummification The Egyptians mummified the body, because they believed the soul could later return to it. Embalming the body; the body would be taken to a tent called "ibu" or the "place of purification" to be prepared. They would wash the body with good smelling palm wine. The embalming process had many steps. Organs would be placed in clay called canopic jars. The head of these jars had god like heads

6: INDUS Geography: Indus is located in what is considered modern day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. This civilization was often protected by its land masses. It has the highest mountains in the world, the Himalayans, Hindu Kush and Karaorum. It also has a large desert to the east. It has several rivers including the Ganges River, Godavari River and the Krishna River. It is bordered by the Arabian Sea. The Indus experienced monsoons. The strong wind storms often caused flooding. The floods deposited rich soil. The monsoons were unpredictable and effected crops. | Excavation Discoveries Archaeologist have discovered evidence of farming dating to about 7000 B.C., including sheep and goat remains. Many of the discoveries have been found in what is now modern day Pakistan. The Indus Valley civilization is also referred to as the Harappan civilization. Some of the largest cities discovered are Mohenjo-Daro, Kalibangan, and Harappa. In Mohenjo-Daro they had plumbing and sewer systems, most of the houses had a bathroom and toilet.

7: Indus writing system Linguists have not been able to decipher the Harappan language. They had close to 400 symbols for writing. This included stamps and seals. Some of these included animal shapes. Archaeologist believe animals were a large part of their culture. Children's toys have even been found that have picture of animals.

8: CHINA River Dynasties China has several natural barriers; the East China Sea, the Pacific Ocean and the Yellow Sea. Along with mountain ranges and deserts, including the Plateau of Tibet, the Gobi Desert, the Mongolian Plateau and the Himalayas. The two main rivers are the Yellow River, also called the Huang He and Yangtze also called Change Jiang. Flooding sometimes occurred from the Huange He river. This caused villages to loose crops. They nicknamed it the "China Sorrow". | Worship of Ancestors Family was an important part of life for the Chinese. Decisions were made by elders of the family. Marriages were arranged. Family and religion were tied together. Ancestor worship was viewed as reverence to family. They believed that their ancestor's spirits could help them or cause disaster. Respect is an important part of their worship.

9: Dynasties The Shang dynasty was overthrown by Zhou. The Zhou reign brought changes and new ideas to the Chinese, including the Mandate of Heaven. The Mandate of Heaven is a view of the royal authority in heaven. Mandate means instruction from a higher authority. The Qin Dynasty overthrew the Zhou Dynasty by 221 B.C.. Qin added a new name to his title Qin Shihuangdi. Qin means the first emperor of China. Feudalsim is a political system where lands that belong to king could be used by nobles, lords and other members of the royal family.

10: Resources: North Carolina McDougal Littlell World History, Patterns of Interaction book Webpages: www.wsu.ed/~dee/MESO/CODE.htm

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