BC: The Nervous system
FC: The nervous system | Barbara Chapman
1: Introduction | In my project I will be talking about The Cerebrum, The Cerebellum, The Neuron, The Medulla Oblongata, and The Spinal Cord. In each of these topics I will explain what they are and how they work. I will also have a picture for every one so you can see what it looks like.
2: The cerebrum
5: The Cerebellum is located the cerebrum . The cerebellum is divided into two hemispheres. It is made of white and gray matter. The surface of the cerebellum is folded. The main function of the cerebellum is to control balance and coordination. If the cerebellum becomes damage, movements will become jerky.
6: The Neuron | The wires in a nervous system are called nerves; nerves are large cables made of many tiny wires which carry messages from place to place.The tiny individual wires are made of cells.Nerve cells are called neurons; a neuron has a cell body and several connecting fibers. The cell body is the control center of the cell and it contains the nucleus, surrounded by cytoplasm, together they make protoplasm. On the outside of the cell body are thread like fibers which carry the messages from one place to another. These fibers are called dendrites. The axon carries messages away from the cell body. At the opposite end of the cell body are fibers called end plates. Messages will travel in one direction only, through a neuron which is from the dendrites to the cell body then along the axon to the end plate. | As a nerve message travels along the neuron to the end plate, a new message is generated in the next neuron. The neurons do not touch. The message must cross over a space called a synapse. The synapse acts like a one-way valve, keeping the messages from traveling backwards.
7: Some neurons have the covering of a liquid called myelin sheath, which helps keep a message from shorting onto a wrong wire. there are three types of neurons, and they are sensory, motor, and association neurons. They all form the wires of the body's communication system. They keep the brain informed about what is going on in the different parts of the body and in the environment around the body. They also carry messages from the brain to the different tissues and organs of the body.
8: The medulla oblongata
9: The Medulla Oblongata is the lowest part of the brain. The spinal cord is attached to the medulla oblongata. It is made of white and gray matter. The white matter is on the outside and it serves as a pathway for nerve messages from higher parts of the brain. The gray matter serves as a switchboard for sensory messages coming to the central nervous system and for outgoing motor massages on their way to some muscle or gland. Certain calls in the medulla's gray matter layer serve the body by controlling many of the vital functions necessary for life to continue. These include rate of breathing, heart beat, and digestion.
10: The spine
11: The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves found within the vertebral column. Attached to the spinal cord are thirty-one pairs of nerves carrying messages to and from the spinal cord. They reach out to all pats of the body. Some nerves carry messages to the brain. Other nerves carry massages to muscles and glands of the body.
12: Factors that affect the system over time | There are many things that affect the system over time like old age,diseases,injury, and inactivity. Old age can make you more likely to get an injury or a disease and be more inactive. There are many diseases you can get. Like Alzheimer which can make you be very forgetful, another one is Multiple sclerosis which can make you get muscle weakness, blured vision, and slurred speech. Injury can also affect the system. Like spinal injuries can affect sensation and control movements of the body. Inactivity is bad. You can damage your nerves really bad if you just do nothing. Like nerve damage can make it harder to move, give you high blood pressure and bad pain.
13: How the system functions as whole | The nervous system functions as a whole by the two principle divisions of the nervous system are the central and peripheral. The former consists of the brain and spinal cord, While the latter is the rest of the nervous system. The brain and spinal cord carry out the bulk of the complex processing, While the periphical system can be further subdiveded into the somatic and automatic, the former responsible for sensation and conscious/purposeful action.While the latter is responsible for "vegetative" processes. The autonomic division can also be divided into two systems, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic. Which carry out the opposing processes of relaxation.