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FC: Cell Mixbook | Katie & Hayley's

1: Cell: The structural, functional, and biological unit of all organisms.

2: Cell History; | - Cells were discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. -Cells got their name because Hooke thought they looked strangely similar to cellula, a small room monks inhabit. - Hook was looking at a cork cell, which is dead.

3: Cork Cell

4: Plant Cell

5: Animal Cell

6: Bacteria

7: Plant cells have a cell wall and are rectangular. Animal cells have a cell membrane and are circular. Bacteria is a prokaryote and vary in shape.

8: Mitochondria

9: Mitochondria give cells energy to move, divide, and multiply. They are the power centers of cells. Mitochondria are approximately the same size as bacteria . They vary in size according to the cell type. They are located in the cell membrane and have a double membrane like the nucleus. They are classified as an organelle. The first outer membrane is smooth but the inner membrane is folded forming cristae. The cristae increase the surface area of the inner membrane. On the cristae food or sugar mix with oxygen to produce energy.

10: Centriole | Found near the nucleus of most eukaryotic cells. Divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis.

11: Endoplasmic Reticulum | A network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface, or studded with ribosomes. It is involved in the transport of materials.

12: Vacuole | A membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion.

13: Cytoskeleton | a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism. | a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism.

14: Cytoplasm | The cell substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, containing the cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and various particles.

15: Lysosomes | A cell organelle containing enzymes that digest particles and that disintegrate the cell after its death.

16: Golgi Apparatus | an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.

17: Nucleus | The nucleus acts as the brain of the cell. It controls cell movement, eating and reproduction. The nucleus is located in the cytoplasm. The nucleus contains both the DNA and RNA, that transfers genetic information during reproduction. | The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear envelope that protects the nucleus. Inside there are chromatin, or DNA, and the nucleolus. The nucleolus is made of RNA and protein.

18: DNA | DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. Small amounts of DNA can also be found in mitochondria. DNA is made of four chemical bases. Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine are the bases for DNA. Depending on how the bases are arranged it determines the building and maintaining of the organism. The bases form stands and use sugar to hold them together. | DNA can also replicate itself, this is crucial in cell reproduction.

19: Chromosome | A chromosome is made of two chromatids that are connected by a centromere. Centromere is where kinetochore is formed. Kinetochore is made of protein to hold the cells together. Right before a cell preforms mitosis, or reproduces, the duplicated chromosmes condense and become shorter. The duplicated chromosome is known as dyads.

20: Cell Membrane | The cell membrane is found in animal cells and is a flexible gel. A cell with a membrane can fix itself when torn or damaged. Three lipids make up the membrane; phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids. The membrane has a bilayer, inbetween the two layers are protein channels. On the outside protein molecules are used for different functions, such as cell surface receptors, enzymes, surface antigens, and transporters.

21: Cell Wall | The cell wall is found only in the plant cell. The wall is rigid and gives the cell a rectangular shape. A cell wall is much stronger than a cell membrane. Since plants have developed this | cell wall they are unable to develop nervous systems and immune systems and are unable to move. The wall is made of cellulose fiber, polysaccharides, and proteins. The cell wall is thin when it forms a new cell, this is so the new cell can grow. The first wall is called the primary cell wall and is the outer most. Then the gluey pectin layer in the middle, and on the inside is the secondary cell wall.

22: Flagella | Flagella are found in some single celled organisms and give them mobility. They are long, strings that attach to cells. Bacteria among other cells have flagella. Flagella attach in to prokaryotic cells. It is found in eukaryotic cells

23: Cilia | Cilia are microscopic hair like projections found on the surface of certain cells. | Cilia is found in eukaryotic cells. They serve as sensory organneles. Cilia and flagella work together and make up a group of organellles known as undulipodia. Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are the same in structure

24: Chloroplast | Chloroplast produces food for cells. They are only found in plant cells. Chloroplast takes in energy from the sun and forms it into sugars. Two membranes protect the inner works of the chloroplast. Inside is the stroma which is where the sugars are created. Then there is the granum which contain chlorophll. The chlorophll uses sunlight to create sugars.

25: Ribosomes | Ribosomes build protein or synthesize it. They connect amino acids together. Ribosomes can be found floating in the cell's cytoplasm or in the endoplasmic reticulum. Proteins made from ribosomes in the cytoplasm are used in the cell. Proteins made from ribosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum are exported out of the cell. A ribosome is made of two pieces or subunits that come together when they need to make protein. Ribosomes are found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

26: Web cites we used: Biology 4 Kids Biology Online Cells Alive

27: Project by: Katie Prinkey and Hayley Novak

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