S: Cell Book
FC: Maggie and Megan's | Cell Book!
1: History of Cells | Cells were first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. He defined the boxy partitions as small rooms. Although he was the first to discover cells, he gave no indication that he believed that these structures represented the basic unit of living organisms. | Robert Hooke was the first to discover cells. | This is a model of a microscope that Robert Hooke used.
2: A prokaryote is a unicellular organism and is the largest group of organisms. They do not have a nuclear membrane and is the most primitive type of cell, which means they appeared about 4 billion years ago. | Prokaryote
3: Eukaryote | A eukaryote is more advanced than prokaryotes. All cells in multicellular organisms are eukaryotes. A eukaryote appeared approximately one billion years ago. They contain: 1. numerous membrane-bound organelles 2. has nuclear membrane surrounding genetic material 3. complex internal structure
4: Animal Cell | You are made up of trillion of animal cells. An animal cell doesn't have a cell wall and is a type of eukaryote cell.The basic parts of an animal cell are the cytoplasm, nucleas, and the cell membrane. Unlike plant cells, animal cells can't create their own food. They have to eat it.
5: Plant Cell | A plant cell is just like an animal cell. They are both a eukaryote cell. But a plant cell differs from an animal cell. A plant cell has a cell wall, large vacuoles, and has plasids, unlike an animal cell. Plant cells can create their food with a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is when a plant uses sun light, carbon dioxide, and water to create sugars for the plant.
6: Cell Structure and Organelles | Mitochondria: The cell's power producers that convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell. Mitochondria is located in the cytoplasm and are involved in cell division, growth, death, and many more. | Nucleus: The control center of the cell; contains the cell's heredity information(DNA0 and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.
7: Mitochandria Nucleus
8: Ribosome | DNA
9: Ribosomes: Small organelles found in all cells; involved in the production of proteins by translating messenger RNA | DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid): a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA molecules is the long-term storage of information.
10: Chromosome: organized structure of DNA and protein that's found in cells. A single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. They also contain DNA-bound proteins which serve to package its proteins and control its functions. | Cell Membrane: the outside of a living cell; a biological membrane separating the interior of a cell from the outside environment.
11: Cell Wall: tough, usually flexible but sometimes fairly rigid layer that surrounds some cells, but not animal cells. it is located outside the cell membrane and provides the cells with structural support and protein. | Flagella: A tail-like projection that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
12: Chloroplast:organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis | Cilia:an organelle found in eukaryotic cells
13: Centrioles: a barrel-shaped cell structure found in most animal eukaryotic cells, though absent in higher plants and most fungi. The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules (protein of the cytoskeleton). | Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): network of membranes within the cytoplasm of cells, where proteins and lipids are synthesized
14: Vacuoles: a membrane bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells;filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell | Cytoskeleton: a cellular "scaffolding" or "skeleton" contained within the cytoplasm and is made out of protein, is present in all cells; made up of three fibers-microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments
15: Cytoplasm: the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus; is full of proteins that control cell metabolism | Lysosome: A membrane-bounded organelle, found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, which contains digestive enzymes. It acts as the "garbage disposal" of the cell by breaking down cell components that are no longer needed as well as molecules or even bacteria that are ingested by the cell.
16: How Organelles Work Together in a Cell | Mitochondria: creates ATP (main energy source),converts energy from your food into ATP Cytoskeleton: gives the cells shape, strength, and the ability to move; | Golgi Apparatus: a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
17: Nucleus: the cell's brain Cell Membrane: carefully protects the cell's internal environment Endoplasmic Reticulum: main function is to manufacture and transport material to other locations. Golgi: receives newly made proteins and lipids from the ER, puts the finishing touches on them, addresses them, and sends them to their final destinations, such as the lysosomes. Lysosomes: can vary widely in size—from 5 inches to 30 feet across; powerful enzymes and acids chew anything that ends up inside to bits
18: Compare and Contrast Cells | Prokaryotic | Eukaryotic
19: Prokaryotic Eukaryotic -unicellular -multicellular - does not have -has a nuclear a nuclear membrane membrane - more -primitive advanced -appeared -appeared about 4 about 4 billion billion years ago years ago
20: Plant and Animal Cells | Plant Cells: 1. have rigid cell walls 2. contains chloroplast 3. larger central vacuole | Animal Cells: 1.phagocytic cell can even absorb other structures 2. breaks the sugar back down to carbon dioxide to make energy | Similaries: 1.both are eukaryotic cells 2. have complex structure
21: Reference | 1. www.google.com 2. http://cellsalive.com/ 3. http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter1.html | By: Maggie Leibold and Megan Geisler