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BC: Created by Meghan Stornes & Jessica Mace

FC: Cells | By: Jessica Mace & Meghan Stornes h

1: The History of the Cell | plant cell | Animal Cell

2: In 1665 Robert Hooke viewed cork under a new invention called a microscope. He discovered that cork was made up of many, tiny cells. Many scientists believed that other living things were also made of cells. After viewing other things, the scientists found that they were correct. Because of the invention of the microscope, scientists were able to see very small organisms and developed a theory called the Cell Theory. | Cell-the basic building blocks of all living things

3: The Cell Theory States: 1.) All life forms are made from one or more cells. 2.) Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. 3.) The cell is the smallest form of life

4: 1665: Robert Hooke- discovered the cell by looking at a small piece of cork through a microscope, he saw mini chambers and he named them cells. | 1676: Anton Van leeuwenhoek- discovered an described "animacules"

5: 1682: Anton Van Leeuwenhoek- sees blood and describes the cell nucleus | 1683: Anton Van leeuwenhoek- discovered bacteria

6: 1759: Caspar Wolff- proposed that all organs in animal embryos were made of globules which could be seen under a microscope. | 1781: Felice Fontana- described the nucleolus after finding it in the slime from an eel's skin

7: 1809: Jean Baptiste de Lamarck- declared that cellular tissue is the general matrix of all organizations | 1824: Henri Dutrochet- stated that all organic tissues are actually globular cells of exceeding smallness, united by simple adhesive forces.

8: 1826: Pierre Turpin- reported his observations of cell division | 1830: Franz Meyen- stated that each cell forms an independent, isolated whole. It nourishes and builds itself up.

9: 1831: Robert Brown- published his observations reporting the discovery and widespread occurrence of the nuclei in a cell

10: 1838: Matthias Schleiden- discovered that plant parts are made of cells. | 1839: Theodor Schwann- discovered that all living things are entirely made up of cells.

11: 1873: Anton Schneider- observed and described chromosomes during cell division. | 1855: Rudolph Virchow- stated that all living cells come only from other living cells.

12: Plants and Animals are Eucaryotic Cells

13: Eucaryotic are cells of protozoa. Eucaryotic cells tend to be larger and more complex than bacteria and other such cells.

14: Bacteria Are Procaryotic Cells

15: Procaryotic cells are very simple in structure. They have an outer cell wall that gives them shape but no recognizable organelles. They have fluid cell membrane and enclosed in that is cytoplasm.

18: the plant cell has a rigid cell wall, an animal cell membrane is a flexible lipid bilayer | plant cells provide different functions for the plant, than animal cells provide for the body. | they are both eukaryotic, which means they have a defined nucleus. | Differences and Similarities between Plant and Animal Cells | both have a cell membrane that surrounds the cell. | plant cells have a cell wall made up of cellulose. Animal cells do not have a cell wall.

19: Plant cells are different from animal cells because they use photosynthesis to covert sunlight into needed food for the plant. | Plant cells have chloroplasts, which has its own DNA, essentially directing the work of the chloroplasts. | plant cells appear extremely different than an animal cell because of the presence of a large vacuole, which exists in the cell’s cytoplasm. It usually takes up most of the room in the cell, and the membrane of the cell encircles it. It contains waste materials, water, and nutrients that can be used or secreted as necessary. | Animal cells have small vacuoles and may have numerous ones. They never have the large single vacuole that takes up most of the space in plant cells. | animal and plant cells both have a nucleus, a cytoplasm, and a cell membrane

20: Differences and Similarities between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells | Eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex then prokaryotic cells | Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, while eukaryotic cells do. | Eukaryotic DNA is linear while prokaryotic DNA is circular. | Eukaryotic ribosomes are much larger than prokaryotic ribosomes

21: The cytoplasm of prokaryotes does not contain any organelles. | Similarities: 1) Enclosed by plasma membranes. 2) Contain ribosomes. 3) Have DNA. 4) Filled with cytoplasm.

22: Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell. Most of the chemical reactions involved in breaking down nutrients happen in the mitochondria. Mitochondria are very small organelles. You might find cells with several thousand mitochondria. The number depends on what the cell needs to do.

23: The nucleus is like the brain of a cell. It helps control eating, movement, and reproduction. The nucleus is not always in the center of the cell. It will be a big dark spot somewhere in the middle of all of the cytoplasm (the fluid that fills the cell). Not all cells have a nucleus so there are two groups. Those that have a defined nucleus are called eukaryotic and those that do not are called and prokaryotic.

24: DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. It is special because it holds the code for every cell in your body. Every cell in your body uses DNA as an instruction manual. Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called genes. Your genes make you who you are. DNA is formed in a spiral ladder shape. This shape allows it to have the ability to wind and unwind so that the nucleic acid chain can duplicate itself. That duplication process happens every time a cell divides.

25: Chromosomes are the things that make organisms what they are. They carry all of the information used to help a cell grow, thrive, and reproduce. Chromosomes are made up of DNA.

26: The cell membrane keeps all of the cell pieces and fluids inside while it keeps everything else out. It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. The cell membrane had different proteins on its surface that are used for functions such as cell surface receptors, enzymes, surface antigens, and transporters. The cell membrane is lined with receptors and antigens which are used to tell the cell if any unusual materials are present. If so, the immune system will activate its killer cells to destroy the foreign cells.

27: The cell wall is usually tough and flexible. It surrounds the cell and is located outside the cell membrane. It provides the cell with support and protection. One of the cells major functions is to act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell and also limiting the entry of large molecules that may be toxic to the cell.

28: Flagellas are long, thread-like appendages which provide cells with the ability to move. If a bacteria has a flagella, it is either rod or spiral-shaped. Flagella are usually 12-30 nanometers in diameter and much longer than the cell in which they move. The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine composed of protein that is located at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane.

29: Cilia is common in single-cell organisms. They are hair-like structures that wave around to move a cell around or to move something in the cell. Tissues in a human body that have cilia are responsible for protection them from germs. Cilia, like a flagella, has an internal structure built upon microtubules but the cilia is usually shorter. Cilias are functioning organelles know to be essential to normal development and health.

30: Chloroplasts in found in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis. Chloroplast is used to capture light energy to conserve free energy through a complex process called photosynthesis. Chloroplast produce food for the cell. All green plants work to convert the energy from the sun into sugar by using chloroplast. They contain the plant cell’s chlorophyll which provides the plant with the green color.

31: Centriole is a barrel-shaped cell structure that is found in most animal. They are there to help the cell when it comes time for the cell to divide. They are usually found near the nucleus but cannot be seen when the cell is not dividing. When they are dividing you may see groups of threads, called mitotic spindle, attached to the centriole.

32: The endoplasmic reticulum acts as a packaging system to created a network of membranes found through the whole cell. The ER may look different depending the cell’s function. There are two types of ER, rough and smooth. They have the same types of membranes but have different shapes. Cisternae, which are sacs of ER, store the complex molecules. ER’s act as storage organelle and packaging of proteins.

33: Vacuoles are storage bubbles that are found in both animal and plant cells but are found to be much larger in plant cells. They store food and other nutrients that a cell might need to survive. They also store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from any contamination. Vacuoles is made of a mass of fluid that is either nutrients or waste products and that mass of fluid is surrounded by a membrane.

34: Cytoskeleton-The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm. | the cytoskeleton helps to maintain cell shape. But the primary importance of the cytoskeleton is in cell motility. The internal movement of cell organelles, as well as cell locomotion and muscle fiber contraction could not take place without the cytoskeleton.

35: Cytoplasm-gelatinous liquid that fills the inside of a cell, Most chemical reactions in a cell take place here. Cytoplasm is basically the substance that fills the cell. It is a jelly-like material that is eighty percent water and usually clear in color. It is more like a viscous (thick) gel than a watery substance | cytoplasm is the substance of life that serves as a molecular soup in which all of the cell's organelles are suspended and held together by a fatty membrane. The cytoplasm is found inside the cell membrane, surrounding the nuclear envelope and the cytoplasmic organelles.

36: Lysosomes-A saclike cellular organelle that contains various hydrolytic enzymes. has enzymes that can break down cellular components that need to be destroyed. Lysosomes functions are digesting excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfing and destroying foreign bodies that could harm the cell, like viruses or bacteria.

37: Golgi apparatus-a cell organelle that helps process and package proteins and lipid molecules, especially proteins destined to be exported from the cell. Its referred to as the "post office"

38: Ribosomes-a cellular particle made of RNA and protein that serves as the site for protein synthesis in the cell. When viewed through a light microscope the ribosomes appear as rounded dots, since they are very small and the subunits can not be seen. Ribosomes are the location of amino-acid assembly within the cell . The more Ribosomes within a given cell, the more protein production there is within the cell

39: All the organelles and functions of the cell need energy to operate. And this energy is provided by biochemical processes that occur in the mitochondrion. The energy extracted in the mitochondria by metabolizing a food source such as glucose is essential to the functioning of all the other organelles in the cell. They all depend on eachother to function and keep the cell or cells alive.

41: References | http://faculty.une.edu/cas/gchstman/students/cells/history.htm | http://teachertech.rice.edu/Participants/dawsonm/cells/timeline.htm | http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/cell_membranes.html

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