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FC: All About...

1: All About cells By: Claudia Sladick and Katie Bainbridge

2: The cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. It was discovered while he was examining cork. He came up with the name cells because he noticed the separated units were similar to small rooms where monks lived called cellula.

3: What is a cell, you ask? Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. | animal cell | plant cell | bacterial cell

4: Bacterial cells are prokaryotes, which are cells without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. | Animal cells are eukaryotes, which contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membrane. | Plant cells are also eukaryotes, which are also referred to as membrane-bound organelles.

5: Mitochondria Mitochondria is the energy generator of the cell. It provides the energy cells needed to move, divide, and produce.

6: Nucleus The nucleus is the cell's managing structure, it contains most of the cell's DNA. It also controls what the cell does. The DNA is responsible for providing the cell with it's unique characteristics. | DNA | Stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It stores information used to make proteins for cell growth.

7: Chromosomes Chromosomes are the units that DNA is packaged into. The packaging is done in several steps. This starts with the double helix of DNA, then the DNA is wrapped around some proteins. Chromosomes are formed when these proteins are tightly packed together.

8: Cell membrane Cell membrane is a double layer of lipids that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell. The proteins that are in the membrane control passages of ions in and out of the cell.

9: Cell Wall The cell wall is a thick, rigid, mesh of fibers that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane. It also protects the cell and gives it structure. A cell wall is only in plant cells.

10: Flagella Flagellum are whip-like organelles specialized for movement. They are longer and less numerous than cilia. Flagella is found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. | (Bacterial flagellum)

11: Cilia Cilia are short, numerous projections that look like hairs from cells. Cilia wave to move a cell around, or move something around the cell. Cilia and flagella are found in the sperm of many animals and algae.

12: Centrioles Organelles made of microtubules that function during cell division. They are found in animal cells and organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division. | Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy through a process called photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are found in plant cells.

13: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Two types of endoplasmic reticulum: Rough endoplasmic reticulum - the area of endoplasmic reticulum where ribosomes are attached. Smooth endplasmic reticulum - the area of endoplasmic reticulum where no ribosomes are attached.

14: Vacuoles A sac used to store food, enzymes, and other materials needed by a cell. Animal and plant cells both have vacuoles. | (Vacuoles 500x magnified) | Cytoskeleton A supporting network of long, thin protein fibers that form a framework for the cell and provide an anchor for the organelles inside the cells.

15: Cytoplasm The environment inside the plasma membrane that is a semi fluid material. The cytoplasm includes all the organelles in a eukaryotic cell. | Lysosomes Vesicles that contain substances that digest excess or worn-out organelles and food particles. Found in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell.

16: Golgi Apparatus A flattened stack of membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into sacs called vesicles. It is usually connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. | Ribosomes Organelles that help manufacture proteins. In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA and are often attached to the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum to form rough ER.

17: How organelles work together: Part 1 The nucleus contains DNA, which coordinates the growth and functions of the rest of the cell. Ribosomes work closely with the nucleus because they originate from an organelle within the nucleus called the nucleolus. A ribosome gets a hold of the codes from the DNA in the nucleus and build cellular proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum connects to the membrane that is surrounded by the nucleus and reaches out the cytoplasm. This stabilizes a chemical communication pathway between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Lysosomes are found in the cytoplasm to help recycle the cell's organic material. The cytoskeleton helps move organelles within the cell. The golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum function similarly but the golgi apparatus prepares materials, such as proteins, for transportation so that they travel through the cell membrane to the exterior of the cell.

18: How organelles work together: Part 2 Mitochondria provides the energy to all the organelles through biochemical processes. The energy that the mitochondria extracts from a food source is crucial for the other organelles in the cell to function properly. The vacuoles store the food and other materials that the cell needs. The centriole is an organelle that is mainly in animals cells and is involved with cell division. Chloroplasts are only in plant cells and basically have the same function of a centriole, only in a plant cell. The flagellum and cilia use the energy generated by the cell to move it around.

19: Comparing and Contrasting: Plant and animal cells: Similarities - eukaryotic, have cell membranes, a nucleus, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, and lysosomes. Differences - plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuoles and are more rigid. Animal cells have centrioles and have more lysosomes than plant cells.

20: Comparing and Contrasting: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Similarities - both enclosed by plasma membranes, contain ribosomes, have DNA, and are filled with cytoplasm. Differences - eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex, prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus, while eukaryotic cells do, eukaryotic DNA is linear and prokaryotic DNA is circular, eukaryotic ribosomes are much larger than prokaryotic ribosomes, and the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells do not contain any organelles where as the eukaryotic cytoplasm does.

21: Documentation of Sources

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