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Briefing book

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FC: Briefing Book Arab-Israeli conflict

1: Section 1 maps and charts


10: Major events that have shaped this region to its current state | Before European Powers | The Persian Empire -Dominated the middle east, and influenced the rest of the middle east region. The Roman Empire -brought Christianity to the middle east The Middle East's ties to the city of Rome would gradually be severed as the Empire split into East and West with the Middle East becoming tied to the new Roman capital of Constantinople The Rise Of ISlam -The arab emipire was the first to control the entire middle east, they also created the dominant ethinic identity that persists today. The kings of Europe launched a number of crusades to try and roll back muslim power. The Ottoman Empire -1300 to 1923 conquered territory in Syria and in eqypt!! Syria was occupied in 1516 and they kept control of this region for 400 years by the 17th century Europe had taken over the muslim world They captured the Christian byzantine capitol and made themselves sultans . They were driven out of hungary, they were under financial control of the Europeans

11: European control | The british saw the ottomans as weak and wanted to knock them out in war. Defeated in 1918 The british and French governments had a secret treaty to partition the middle east between the two. British supported creating a jewish homeland in Palestine. Syria became a French protectorate. Iraq became kindom of Iraq, and Palestine became the “british mandate of Palestine”!! The british imposed heavy taxes, people were not given the right to participate in administration and the government created the “six acts”. Discovery of oil In persia 1908 then in saudi arabi in 1938

12: 1896-1897 Theodore Herzl publishes “The State of the Jews” . Political Zionism begins. | 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement – divides the Ottoman Arab lands into zones exercised by either French or British spheres of influence. Palestine comes under British influence | WW1 The Ottoman Empire, ruler of the Arab world since 1500’s, is defeated | 1929 Arab-Jewish riots in Hebron and elsewhere left nearly 250 Arabs and Jews dead and the Jewish community of Hebron ceased to exist. | 1933 Hitler’s rise to power in Germany. Jewish migration into Palestine increases. | Timeline

13: The Arab Revolt – First major outbreak of Arab-Jewish hostilities. Revolt leads to the Peel Commission recommendation in 1937 of partitioning Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Arabs rejected and Jews accepted but wanted more land. White Paper limits Jewish immigration; Jews found the Mossad to arrange for illegal immigration. | 1947-1948 UN General Assembly Resolution 181 is passed, partitioning Palestine into Jewish and Arab states. Greater Jerusalem was to be an international | 1948 British mandate ends; Israel declares statehood. Arab armies attack Israel. War results in a divided Jerusalem and 650,000 Palestinian refugees | 1964 Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) is established, with the stated aim of “eliminating Zionism in Palestine.”

14: 1967 Six Day War: – Israel launches a preemptive strike and conquers the Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem, which it annexed. 600,000 Palestinians become refugees. “land for peace” principle is established | 1973 Yom Kippur War – Egypt and Syria attack Israel. No territorial change | 1981 Israel annexes Golan Heights, captured from Syria in 1967. | 1982 Israel invades Lebanon a second time and lays siege to Beirut. | 1987 Intifada, a Palestinian popular uprising against the Israeli occupation of the territories, begins in Gaza and spreads to West Bank

15: 1991 Gulf War begins in January in response to Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Madrid Conference – Israel and Arabs begin bilateral and multilateral negotiations. | 1993 Oslo Peace Process, the agreement between the two sides to make gradual steps towards a final settlement of the conflict, begins. | 1994 Palestinian Authority is established in Gaza and Jericho. Arafat arrives in Gaza. Jordan & Israel sign peace treaty. | 2002 President Bush declares vision for a “viable Palestinian state next to a secure Israel.” Israel begins construction of “security fence” around the West Bank. | 2003 US-initiated war in Iraq. Occupation of Iraq begins.

16: 2004 Sharon announces unilateral Gaza withdrawal plan and gains U.S. support. Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies. International Court of Justice rules that the route of Israel’s “separation barrier” violates international law. | 2005 In State of the Union address Bush recommits to two-state solution and asks Congress for additional aid to the Palestinians. Gaza withdrawal is completed in September. | 2006 Escalation of Israeli-Palestinian violence in Gaza and abduction of Israeli Corporal Gilad Shalit. Hezbollah-Israel conflict erupts in the summer following kidnapping of Israeli soldiers.

17: 2007 Mecca Agreement between Hamas and Fatah, brokered by Saudi Arabia, leads to formation of Palestinian unity government in March. Arab League relaunches its Peace Proposal. Hamas takeover of Gaza in June,. Annapolis international peace conference convened in November with all Arab League nations participating including Syria and Saudi Arabia. | 2008 in January, Israel closes all border crossings with Gaza to halt Palestinian rocket attacks. Palestinian militants bomb the Rafah border and tens of thousands of Gazans cross the border into Egypt. Israel publicizes that they are in negotiations with Syria via Turkish intermediaries. In June, a Gaza cease-fire is brokered between Hamas and Israel by Egyptian intermediaries. In September, Israeli PM Olmert announces intent to resign and by October Tzipi Livni announces she cannot form a coalition because of Shas party demands and calls for new elections. In December, Hamas-Israel cease-fire expires and violence breaks out. Rocket fire from Gaza increases, and on Dec. 27 Israel launches Operation Cast Lead.

18: 2009 begins with escalating violence in Gaza and southern Israel. On Jan. 8 the UN Security Council passes Resolution 1860, calling for a full ceasefire. The U.S. abstains. On Jan. 17, Israel announces a unilateral end to offensive military operations in the Gaza Strip and on Jan.18 Hamas announces a one-week ceasefire, demanding Israeli troops withdraw from the Gaza Strip. US President Barack Obama is sworn in on January 20. He and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton appoint former Senator George Mitchell as special envoy to the Middle East to work on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Israeli elections are held in February; Benjamin Netanyahu becomes Prime Minister with right-leaning coalition government in March. Obama Administration holds series of meetings and consultations throughout spring, including urging Israel to "stop settlement activity" and culminating in Presidential speech in Cairo on June 4.

21: section 3 government, politics, and military

22: Government,Politics,And the military | Government | Israel Parliamentary democracy, which is when the people elect a parliament which in turn elects the prime minister Head : the prime minister and ariel Sharon -the emir acts as head of state and appoints a prime minister who heads the government Government of Palestine -works within the constitution of Palestine which came into existence in 1968 -have 3 political parties they are also ruled under a parliamentary democracy | Politics | B. Isreal political parties - avoda, likud, meretz, shinui, HADASH, communist party, meimad, herut, tkuma, ale Yarok, chok hateva, maavak sozialisti, ODA Palestin Political parties -Fateh -Hamas -Palestinian peoples party

23: Military | C. Military forces and strategic issues always play an important role in the Middle East, especially since several bilateral and regional conflicts have periodically produced wars and other violence. Military questions are always high on the priority list of governments and of national budgets. Armed forces often play an important role in policymaking and have seized power on many occasions in the past. Thus, researching these issues is a vital part of studying the Middle East.

25: Section 4 economy

26: A: Israel is not economically self-sufficient, and relies on foreign assistance and borrowing to maintain its economy. Since 1985, the United States has provided $3 billion in grants annually to Israel. In addition to U.S. assistance, it is estimated that Israel receives about $1 billion annually through philanthropy, an equal amount through short- and long- term commercial loans, and around $1 billion in Israel Bonds proceeds. | B: The unemployment rate of Israel is 8 percent | Israeli Economy

29: Section5 influentual people and leaders

30: Influential People & Leaders | David Ben Gurion- Born: 16 October 1886 – Died: 1 December 1973 (aged 87) David Ben Gurion was the first Prime Minister of Israel. Ben-Gurion's passion for Zionism, which began early in life, culminated in his instrumental role in the founding of the state of Israel. After leading Israel to victory in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Ben-Gurion helped build the state institutions and oversaw the absorption of vast numbers of Jews from all over the world. Upon retiring from political life in 1970, he moved to Sde Boker, a kibbutz in the Negev desert, where he lived until his death. Posthumously, Ben-Gurion was named one of Time Magazine's 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century Your browser may not support display of this image.

31: Moshe Dayan- Born: 20 May 1915 – Died: 16 October 1981 (aged 66) Moshe Dayan was an Israeli military leader and politician. The fourth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (1953–1958), he became a fighting symbol to the world of the new State of Israel. He went on to become Defense Minister and later Foreign Minister of Israel. Moshe served in many wars including World War II, 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Suez Crisis, Six-Day war, and the Yom Kippur War. Although Dayan did not take part in most of the planning before the Six-Day War of June 1967, his appointment as defense minister contributed to the Israeli success.

32: Yitzhak Rabin: Born: 1 March 1922 -Died: 4 November 1995 (aged 73) He was an Israeli politician and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–1977 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995. In 1994, Rabin won the Nobel Peace Prize together with Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat. He was assassinated by right-wing Israeli radical Yigal Amir, who was opposed to Rabin's signing of the Oslo Accords. Your browser may not support display of this image.

33: Golda Meir: Born: 3 May 1898 – Died: 8 December 1978 (aged 80) Meir was elected Prime Minister of Israel on 17 March 1969,after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister. Israel's first and the world's third female to hold such an office, she was described as the "Iron Lady" of Israeli politics years before the epithet became associated with British prime minister Margaret Thatcher. Former prime minister David Ben-Gurion used to call Meir "the best man in the government"; she was often portrayed as the "strong-willed, straight-talking, grey-bunned grandmother of the Jewish people".

35: Section 8 peace plan

36: A. In order for there to be peace within Israel, then there needs to be a peace plan. One of the things that the Israelis feel strongly about is religion, they are Muslim which means they live and follow the rules of “The Koran”. They should use this as a tool on how to be open to change, and how to do what is right. B. I think that Jerusalem should become its own state. Even though its small enough to be a city, if Jerusalem was a state then the Israelis and the Arabs can come and go as they please without conflict. It would be up to the government of Jerusalem to pass judgment on who and who cant be allowed into the area. C. | Peace Plan

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