BC: The End
FC: Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee | Brandon O'Keefe Kerri Eng Zach Agatello | E-Block
1: Chapter 8 Summary | Donehogawa, an Iroquois who was installed as the new Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1869, learns of the January 23, 1870, massacre of Piegan Blackfeet three months after it happened. He orders an investigation into the massacre, which had angered many Plains Indians. He also asks Red Cloud to come to Washington, D.C., for talks. Red Cloud and his group of 15 Oglalas meet Donehogawa in June and express the Sioux’ anger over the treaty of 1868 which, as ratified by the Congress, puts the Sioux agency on the Missouri River. Donehogawa has Secretary of the Interior Cox explain that the Sioux would still be able to stay in their Powder River country because it was reserved as an Indian hunting ground. The Sioux would also not need to go to the reservation to trade or to receive their goods. Donehogawa’s downfall starts in the latter part of 1870. His enemies attack him as being nearly a savage due to his Indian ethnicity, and this prevents his agency from being able to buy supplies for reservation Indians.This eventually forces his resignation, which comes in the summer of 1871 after a House inquiry into his alleged misconduct.
2: Red Cloud | Leader of the Cheyenne survivors of the fight at Summit Springs. He was stubborn and proud, refusing to move his tribe to Missouri. When Parker searches for someone to speak to about easing the minds of the Native Americans, Red Cloud acted as one of the representatives of all the Native American tribes in the area.
3: Ely Samuel Parker/Donehogawa | Keeper of the Western Door of the Long House of the Iroquois. As a youth he was known as Hasanoanda of Seneca Iroquois but changed his name when he realized that it was not and would not be taken seriously by the whites. He expected to be taken seriously. For almost half a century, Parker battled racial prejudice, but things were made easier after he met Ulysses S Grant before he became president. Grant promoted Parker to becoming Lieutenant Colonel Parker and eventually Brigadier General Parker in the four years following the Civil War. When Grant became president, he was again promoted to Commissioner of Indian Affairs. He was the first "red man" who learned to read and write on the level of the whites.
4: 1868- Treaty of 1868 ratified by Congress, putting the Sioux agency on the Missouri River 1869- Donehogawa becomes new commissioner of Indian Affairs 1870- Donehogawa learns of the Piegan Blackfeet massacre, and orders an investigation, angering many Plains Indians -Donehogawa also asks Red Cloud to go to Washington D.C. “for talks” (discuss the Sioux’s anger over the treaty of 1868) 1870- (The latter part of 1870) Donehogawa starts to downfall due to attacks from enemies, disabling the Indians to buy supplies for their reservation. 1871- Eventually Donehogawa was forced into retirement after an inquiry into his alleged “Misconduct” | Historical Relevance
5: Conflict | There was a rumour circulating around the Native American reservations about Camp Pigeon Blackfeet. It was said that an entire camp was slaughtered by soldiers by the Marias River in Montana. The Army tried to hide the tussle, but word got around quickly between the Native Americans and made all uncomfortable, even if the tribes didn't particularly get along. However, it took weeks for word to finally reach the Indian Bureau in Washington. When Ely Samuel Parker did hear of the rumour he became uneasy and felt if he didn't do something to ease the minds of the Native Americans about the government, there was potential that there would be a war outbreak in the summer. | Red Cloud was known greatly for being stubborn and refused to move his tribe's location due to a treaty he had signed. He went all the way to Washington in order to fight for the treaty of 1868 he had signed. He was led to believe that the treaty confirmed and promised them trade at Fort Laramie, an agency at Platte and the safety and comfort of his tribe in comfort of their own land. However, when they arrived at the White House and approached the issue, President Grant knew that the treaty Congress had passed did not promise them this. The treaty had been written up and being that none of the Indians (minus Parker/Donehogawa) could read nor write, it was fairly easy to manipulate the treaty and what the leaders heard was supposed to be in the treaty. Once the treaty was interpreted to them once again by Secretary Cox, the intentions were clear and Red Cloud became angry with the government. They had intended to clear out the next morning in a defeat, however, with Parker now on their side, they were offered another interpretation which was much more fair and benefited the Native Americans. Red Cloud and his tribe exited Washington victorious.
6: Review Of Literature | The historical detail in literature made the chapter more intriguing as each situation was presented from multiple points of views.