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Canadian History Week 2 Project (Copy)

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FC: Factors Of The Expulsion | Mr. Batstone Kaitlin L. Braden January 17, 2014 Canadian History 11

1: "Ethnic cleansing is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas. To a large extent, it is carried out in the name of misguided nationalism, historic grievances, and a powerful driving sense of revenge. This purpose appears to be the occupation of territory to the exclusion of the purged group or groups" -A statement issued by the United Nations Commission of Experts, convened by the Secretary General in 1992 to investigate the violent conflict in the Balkans.

2: The Acadians. In the year 1604 French colonists arrived in Chaleur Bay (located between Quebec and New Brunswick) under the leadership of Pierre du Gua de Monts and Samuel de Champlain. There were about 80 of them and in the first winter scurvy killed at least 36 of them. They looked for a new site the following year and they decided on Port Royal. They could not stay there however due to commercial rivalry and went back to France until 1610, during which time they had become friendly with the two aboriginal peoples of Acadia, the Mi'kmaq and the Maliseet. Other factors made it hard for them to stay once again though as they were chased out by Samuel Argall, an adventurer from Virginia in 1613 and again in 1621 when the government renamed Acadia to Nova Scotia and moved in the Scottish settlers of Sir William Alexander (1629). His Scottish expansion was cut short by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, which allowed France to take back Acadia. In the 1670s these people started to branch out and find new centers. Census records say that in 1671 there were about 400 Acadians but by 1750 that number had jumped to between 13 000 and 15 000.

3: The French and British. One thing we can say about the French and British is that in the 16 and 17 hundreds, they did not like each other. They were constantly fighting for power, and with the New World being claimed, land was equal to power. This is why that things became increasingly tense when Acadia came into play. For, Acadia was neutral between Britain and France, but the two countries were fighting over the lands and could both use the support of the Acadians. During the years before the expulsion the seven years' war was being fought with Britain and France against each other, this may make it easy to see why the power of Acadia would matter to the contenders for most powerful country.

4: Thew | The Expulsion. The expulsion lasted nine years and was part of a British military campaign against New France. Approximately 11 500 Acadians were deported to the Thirteen Colonies. The expulsion started on July 28, 1755 when they were arrested and deported but on September 5, 1755 they were gathered in St Charles Church where the declaration stating that they were to be deported was read. Finally on July 11, 1764 the British government passed an order-in-council to allow Acadians to legally return to British territories, only if that they take an unqualified oath of allegiance to Britain. During the deportation thousands of Acadians died from diseases, starvation and drowning from lost ships.

6: The Governor. The Governor that changed it all for the Acadians was Charles Lawrence. He was the governor of Nova Scotia and he had a distrust of the Acadians, fearing that they may side with the French in a war. He also feared that they were working with the Natives against British rule. He threatened them with deportation if they did not sign an oath of allegiance to the British Crown, but the Acadians were undaunted. They had heard this treat many times but no one had ever carried it out. But Charles Lawrence got permission to deport them and did so when they refused to sign the oath.

7: People were locked inside a church and all of their possessions were given to the Crown, families were split apart and houses were burned. Some tried to escape by fleeing into the woods but few survived that way.

8: The Reason. This may seem like a bad move on the part of the Acadians, but really they were just trying to save their history. The English had different religious beliefs, language and culture than them and the Acadians refused to give up their heritage. The English had already created Halifax, a new capitol to replace Louisbourg, which was run by the Acadians, so that they did not have to depend on them. Even when the Acadians returned to Nova Scotia they had lost all of their land and so they started over, and still have a impact on the culture in these areas.

10: The Summary. Basically, the factors that pushed along the expulsion of the Acadians were Governor Charles Lawrence, the Acadians' stubbornness to cling to their beliefs, the distrust between Britain and France, the need for power in Britain and France and quite possibly the greed and fear of man. This is only one instance of people being displaced in Canada, if you were to look at other examples there would be other factors such as wealth, race and other, more precise factors.

11: Sources: Acadiensis: 10ish. sources http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/acadiensis/article/view/5726/11196 The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/history-of- Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France%E2%80%93United_Kingdom_relations#Overseas_expansion http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_the_Acadians White Pine Pictures: http://www.whitepinepictures.com/seeds/i/6/sidebar.html Historica: http://www.histori.ca/peace/page.do?pageID=275

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