FC: Inside the Life of a Eukaryotic Cell | By Conner Mansell & Dylan Cochrac
1: Reference Page | Biology4Kids.com library.thinkquest.org biology.about.com http://sln.fi.edu/qa97/biology/cells/cell3.html biology-online.org http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/nucleus/nucleolus.html http://www.cs.stedwards.edu/chem/Chemistry/CHEM43/CHEM43/Ribosomes/Ribosome.HTML http://www.cytochemistry.net/cell-biology/rer1.htm http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/G/Golgi.html http://www.historyforkids.org/scienceforkids/biology/cells/vacuoles.htm http://cellsalive.com/ http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/insidethecell/chapter1.html http://www.nsf.gov/news/overviews/biology/interactive.jsp http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/tdc02_int_membraneweb/
2: Cytoplasm- Jelly like material that fills the cell. Clear in color. Found inside the cell membrane. Surrounding the nuclear envelope and cytoplasmic organelles. Under a microscope, it appears to be a 3 dimensional lattice of protein rich strands. Helps dissolve waste products. Helps move materials around the cell. Analogy: Packing Peanuts | Cytoskeleton- Helps maintain cell shape. Important in cell motility. The cytoskeleton is contained within the cells cytoplasm. It is made of proteins. Analogy: House Walls. | Ribosomes- Consist of RNA and proteins. Responsible for assembling the proteins in a cell. Ribosomes contain two subunits. Ribosomes are usually suspended in the cytosol and bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Analogy: Production Line.
3: Golgi Apparatus- Made of 5 to 8 cup shaped, membrane covered sacs called cisternae. Usually located close to the cell nucleus. The Golgi Apparatus is considered the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. Modifies proteins and lipids that are built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export. Analogy: UPS | Vacuoles- Membrane bound sac. Vacuoles play a role in intracellular digestion. They release cellular waste products. Much larger in plant cells.They are found in both animal and plant cells. Stores food and nutrients. Analogy: Refrigerator. | Lysosomes- Found in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. Hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of lysosomes is to digest things and to break down the cell when it dies. They are specialized vesicles. They are also single membrane organelles. Analogy: Stomach.
4: Centrioles- They have cylindrical structures. They are found in animal cells. Centrioles help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division. Centrioles called basal bodies form cilia and flagella. They replicate during the interface stage of mitosis and meiosis. Centrioles are made of microtubules. Found near the nucleus. Analogy: Assembly line. | Chloroplasts- Food producers of the cell. They are only found in plant cells. Chloroplasts make sugars and starches. They use photosynthesis. They contain chlorophyll. They have a double outer membrane. They are viewed as flat disks under a microscope. Analogy: Chef.
5: Cell Membrane- - two dimensional liquid, located on exterior of cell. The cell membrane forms a barrier between the inside of the cell and the outside, so that the chemical environments on the two sides can be different, Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling. The cell membrane is like a border (between countries). The cell membrane (much like the border guards) control the traffic in and out of the cell | Cell wall- The cell wall is made up of the Middle Lamella, Primary and secondary walls. This is located on the outside of the cell membrane. It's main function is to act like a pressure vessel, providing over-expansion when water enters the cell. A sponge is a good analogy because it absorbs water and is used for protection (cleaning)
6: Nucleus- The cell nucleus acts like the brain of the cell. It helps control eating, movement, and reproduction. The nucleus is not always in the center of the cell. It will be a big dark spot somewhere in the middle of all of the cytoplasm (cytosol) ( most likely not near edge), The nuclear envelope is a double membrane. It has 4 phospholipid layers. It is also has large pores through which materials pass back and forth, regulating all cell activity. | Nucleolus- It is a tiny spherical shape at the innermost portion of the cell nucleus, Its primary role is to synthesize the ribosomes and its subunits, if the ribosmes are the factory, than the nucleolus is the construction workers that make the factory. if the whole cell is the factory and the ribosomes are the factpry workers, the nucleolus is the manager in charge of hiring and/or training new workers
7: Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough and Smooth)- The functions of RER are providing an internal structural skeleton to support the cell's shape, The rough ER appears rough due to the presence of ribosomes on the membrane surface. Smooth ER has its purpose in the cell. It acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of steroids., The smooth ER is an arrangement of tubules, vesicles, and sacs. | Mitochondria- act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell. Mitochondria are rod-shaped structures that are enclosed within two membranes - the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The most important function of the mitochondria is to produce energy. The food that we eat is broken into simpler molecules like carbohydrates, fats, etc. in our bodies. The mitochondria are located in the cytoplasm.
8: Cilia/Flagella- Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell. A cylindrical array of 9 filaments and a pair of single microtubules help make up the Cilia/Flagella. Cilia are found in the respiratory tract. Flagella are only found on sperm, flagella is like a tail (monkey or leopard) and the cilia is like the legs on a millipede