S: Seasons of Change
FC: Cells Project | By:Justin & Kaylee
1: Cell Theory: State the three principles of the cell theory: 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is a basic unit of life. 3. New cells arise only from cells that already exist. Cell Theory explains the general principles of construction for all living things.
2: Theodor Schwann-He discovered the digestive enzyme pepsin in 1836. He showed that yeast were tiny plant-like organisms, and suggested that fermentation was a biological process. Rudolf Virchow- Believed that disease originates in cells, not in tissues, organs, or entire organisms. Matthias Schlieden- He wrote Contributions to Phytogenesis , in which he stated that the different parts of the plant organism are composed of cells. Robert Hooke- Hooke devised the compound microscope and illumination system.
3: Eukaryotic VS Prokaryotic Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are called prokaryotes. A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus is a eukaryote.
4: Animal Cells VS Plant Cells Plant Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals. Animal Cell: A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or nuclear envelope. A notable difference between animal cells and plant cells is that animal cells do not have a cell wall where as plant cells do. Both plant and animal cells have plasma membranes.
5: Homeostasis: In order to function properly and stay alive, cells must maintain homeostasis. The state of homeostasis keeps the cell constant with what it needs to function. This means that in homeostasis, the waste is being transported away from the cell while it receives the nutrients it needs to continue to function.
6: Vacuoles - Membrane sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal - Contains water solution - Contractile vacuoles for water removal
7: Plasma Membrane - Outer membrane of cell that controls cellular traffic - Contains proteins that span through the membrane and allow passage of materials
8: Cell Wall - Most commonly found in plant cells - Extracellular structure surrounding plasma membrane - Primary cell wall: extremely elastic - Secondary cell wall: forms around primary cell wall after growth is complete
9: Ribosomes - Each cell contains thousands - Stationary type: embedded in rough endoplasmic reticulum - Puts proteins directly into cytoplasm
10: Mitochondria - Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure - Double-layered outer membrane - Energy-producing chemical reactions - Controls level of water and other materials in cell - Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates
11: Lysosome -Digestive 'plant' for proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates - Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal - Vary in shape depending on process being carried out - Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes
12: Golgi Apparatus - Protein 'packaging plant' - A membrane structure found near nucleus - Composed of numerous layers forming a sac
13: Endoplasmic Reticulum - Tubular network fused to nuclear membrane - Goes through cytoplasm onto cell membrane - Stores, separates, and serves as cell's transport system - Smooth type: lacks ribosomes - Rough type ribosomes embedded in surface
14: Chloroplasts - A plasmid usually found in plant cells - Contain green chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place
15: Cytoskeleton - Composed of microtubules - Supports cell and provides shape - Aids movement of materials in and out of cells
17: Playing in the leaves! | The more you laugh, the longer you live.
18: These Are The Moments I Live For
22: Warm & Cozy
23: wonderland | Dashing Through the Snow
25: Home is where there's someone to love, and someone to love us.