FC: Cell Scrapbook - The Structure, Functions, and History of Cells. By: Quintin Scott and Trent Jones
1: The cell wall is sort of like a skeleton for the cell, as it is the main supporting structure in plant cells. Also, it affects the rate and direction of growth within the cell. | The cell membrane acts as a protective outer covering and gives the cell its shape. As well, it anchors the cytoskeleton (made up of proteins) and performs many other functions vital to the survival of the cell.
2: Chromatin is the combination of DNA and proteins that is stored in the nucleus of every eukaryotic cell. It is needed in order for the cell to replicate itself and reproduce. | Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, which is used to make the plant's food. They are used in photosynthesis and give leaves a distinct green color. | Cytoplasm is the material filling the open areas of the cell. It is where the organelles expand and perform reactions important to cell functioning.
3: Lysosomes are, essentially, a disposal system for the cell. They are responsible for digesting foreign or unwanted substances that end up in the cell one way or another.
4: The Nucleus is used to store genetic information and is the main control center for the cell. It makes sure that cell reproduction is done exactly as it is supposed to. | The main function of the mitochondrion is to produce energy in the form of a ATP. The cell uses this energy to do things needed for cell survival and function. | The nucleolus is responsible for creating ribosomes. Because of the ribosomes' function of creating proteins, the nucleolus plays an indirect role in protein synthesis. | The Golgi apparatus carries out the processing of proteins generated in the endoplasmic reticulum. Also, it transports proteins to different parts of the cell.
5: The plasma membrane's main job is to help the cell function when mixed with water. They contain many different proteins which are taken in and out of the cell as needed. | Peroxisomes absorb nutrients that the cell has obtained, and are very well known for digesting fatty acids. They also play a part in the way cells digest alcohol. Because of this, liver cells generally contain more peroxisomes than any other type of cell in the body. | The nuclear membrane is mostly used in regulating substances going in and out of the cell. It acts as a security system to ensure the materials involved are safe.
6: Rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered in ribosomes that make proteins. These proteins are then sent from there to the nucleus, where they are stored and used in the creation of genetic information.
7: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is used for providing a reaction site for enzymes. Also, it is involved in some metabolic processes such as the synthesis of lipids and steroids. | The vacuole is the main storage space for a cell. Notably, they are used in storing waste materials and maintaining the pH of the cell's environment.
8: Lastly, there are ribosomes. Ribosomes are responsible for the creation of proteins and are either in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. They create amino acids essential to the production of DNA and other genetic information storage.
9: Cell theory: The idea of cell theory is that all organisms are composed of the same basic material - cells. It originated from the scientists Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden in the mid-1800s.
10: Ideas of cell theory | 1. All living things are made up of cells. | 2. A cell is the structural and functional unit of all living things. | 3. All cells come from previous cells. | 4. Cells contain hereditary information which is passed from cell to cell. | 5. All cells have the same cell composition. | 6. All energy of life occurs in cells.
11: Robert Hooke: This man was the first known human being and scientist to see a living cell. He observed the cell of a cork tree through a microscope in 1655.
12: Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek: This scientist observed the first bacteria, as well as the first protozoa in the years 1674 and 1683.
13: These men are Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleiden. They are the scientists who proposed the idea of cell theory, which is still used today in modern biology and cell research.