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Central Africa

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S: Central Africa: Azande, Bantu and Dinka tribe

BC: NDW 4M Mrs. Chapman April 8, 2011 ©©©

FC: Azande | Bantu | Dinka | By: Lauren Cardinal, Kayla Hochgrafe, & Nick Townsend | Discover the Indigenous Peoples of Central Africa

1: The Azande People live in Northeastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as Southwestern Sudan and in the Southeastern Central African Republic. There are an estimated 1 to 4 million Azande People living in Central Africa. | Azande | Democratic Republic of the Congo | The Azande people migrated west from southern Sudan in the 1600's. They in the dry Savannah of central Africa on the banks of the Nile River. | 1

2: The Bantu family is hundreds of individual groups, none of them larger than a few million people (the largest being the Zulu with some 10 million). Swahili is a Bantu language with only 5-10 million native speakers. | Bantu | The Bantu people are a nomadic group, relying on the only the soil until it became dry, when this occurred they then moved on, which made many Europeans believe that majority of Central Africa went inhabited. | 2

3: Distribution of Bantu peoples divided into zones according to the classification of Bantu languages | They brought an assortment of skills with them, including the ability to farm and work with metals such as iron, and this migration continued until around the fourth century BCE. | It is estimated that the Bantu tribes probably began migrating from Northern Africa around 3,000 BCE. Many of these people settled South of the Congo River. | 3

4: The Dinka tribe is located in southern Sudan with an estimated population of 1.5 million, they are the largest tribe in Sudan. The Dinka are agro-pastrol and migrate according to the climate, though they grow crops, they are best known as cattle herders. | Dinka consuming milk, 2008 | Map of Sudan, 2009 | The Dinka | Moinjaang, “"People of the people"” | 4

5: The Dinka were relatively undisturbed for centuries, living a nomadic lifestyle. Once they were colonized by the British they began to establish villages. For the past 25 years, they have been displaced, scattered to the far corners of the Earth due to the Sudanese civil war that began in 1983 and lasted into the 1990s. The Sudanese government has been accused of attempting to exterminate the Dinka tribe. | Dinka man by his cattle, 2009 | 5

6: Culture | The Azande people speak in 5 different dialects of a language that belongs to the Niger-Congo group. They have a very rich culture and a history of religious diversity stemming back to a belief in mangu similar to witch craft. | Azande Witch Doctor | 6 | Azande

7: Music is a big part of the culture from vocals to instrumentals on large wooden bow harps, skin drums, wooden gongs, and whistles. The Azande people also use Herbal medicines and common sense medical solutions to basic problems. | Herbal Medicine | Azande Whistle | 7

8: Bantu | The most frequent dish amongst the Bantu people is Ugali. It's cornmeal cooked with water to a thick consistency. This is typically eaten along with green vegetables referred as sukuma wiki. | Some of the items most cherished by the Bantu tribe are, Maasai blankets, Kisii soap stone carvings, wooden carvings, Kenyan animal hide drums are also crucial at ceremonies | 8

9: A rich cultural tradition accompanies Santeria and other similar religious practices. The name is actually the Latinized version of thiape, a Bantu word from southern Africa meaning “fish.” Legend has given it another name, St. Peter’s fish. According to tradition, it is the fish that Jesus served to the multitudes. A few tilapia species still inhabit the Sea of Galilee. | 9 | The Bantu Culture, Kids Net

10: Dinka | The cattle are central to Dinka culture, when boys become men they adopt a new name that comes from a characteristic of their favourite cattle. | Between the ages of 10 and 16, boys will be initiated by scarification, generally lines or a V shaped pattern, these patterns show that the boy belongs to a certain tribe. | Nuer Cattle Camp, Sudan | Dinka scarification | 10

11: The Dinka worship the god, Nhialic, who they believe is the source of all life and death, they also perform rituals as a way to honour the god. | Young men wear intricately beaded corsets until marriage, but otherwise are naked while women will wears grass skirts. | They support polygamy but they must marry outside their tribe to promote diversity. A rich man may have fifty wives! | Man in beaded corset, 2007 | 11

12: Economy and Government | 12 | Azande | The Azande people live similarly to how they did before colonialism there religious views have skewed towards Christianity but even today a tight family is the key system in how they organize themselves. | The Economy the Azande have now is built around agriculture and cash farming. They also make a small income through limited gardening and labor. | Azande Granary

13: Bantu | The Bantu were one of the first indigenous groups that created centralized governments such as the types that existed in the Bantu kingdoms of Buganda, Bunyoro-kitara, Nkore and Toro, Igara and Buhweju. Some historians assert that the idea of centralized government could have been an indigenous one. | 13 | Children of Somali

14: Dinka: Economy and Government | Tending their herds of cattle and growing crops, mainly millet, are the basis of the Dinka economy. Men tend the herds while women tend the crops. | In the past, the Dinka have not been active in national politics. Since the civil war though, many have joined the military due to the hardships placed on them. Many Dinka have been raped or abducted and forced into slavery. | 14

15: Contemporary Issues | 15 | Azande | Azande | Today the Azande people live in small villages and some learn in small western style schools. Like many tribal groups in Central Africa they have had large problems with military groups and civil wars, | Azande Man

16: Like other indigenous groups the Bantu have faced several set backs since early settling times. With the conflict with the Europeans to this day they are forced into slavery, and constant loss. | Being as a the Bantu tribes are nomadic, they are in constant search for new rich soil and land to inhabit, however they are running scarce on areas of land. | 16 | Bantu

17: Dinka | The Dinka have endured many hardships over the past 30 years since the Sudanese civil war; they have been displaced, abducted, raped and forced into slavery. The Sudanese government has been accused of "ethnically cleansing" the Dinka tribe. | Many of the Dinka have joined the military to protect themselves and to oppose the government's actions. | Dinka child, 1999 | 17

18: References | Dinka Dinka. (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Rwanda-to-Syria/Dinka.html Dinka tribe. (2008). Retrieved from: http://www.wydasudan.org/dinka-tribe Dinka of Sudan. (2007). Retrieved from: http://saharanvibe.blogspot.com/2007/03/dinka-of-sudan.html The Dinka of Sudan. (2011). Retrieved from: http://strategyleader.org/profiles/dinka.html

19: Picture References | Dinka Dinka child. (1999). Retrieved from: http://www.oppression.org/africa/sudan_endless_war.html Dinka flag. (2006). Retrieved from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dinka_flag.gif?uselang=fr Dinka in Southern Sundan. (2006). Retrieved from: http://www.taschen.com/pages/en/catalogue/photography/reading_room/187.the_spark_and_the_tear.1.htm Dinka man. (2006). Retrieved from: http://www.hackelbury.co.uk/artists/salgado/genesis.html Dinka man by his cattle. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.culture24.org.uk/art/art65743 Dinka scarification, Rumbek Southern Sudan, Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/themetaphysicalpassionsofsquid/galleries/72157623880844789/ Man in beaded corset. (2007). Retrieved from: http://www.photokunst.com/photo_detail.php?photo_id=814 Map of Sudan. (2009). Retrieved from: http://sb.westfordk12.us/pages/6mweb/6mss/travelpages/1/1Garret8/1Garret8.html Nuer Cattle Camp, Sudan. (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://www.artofphotographyshow.com/2008photos5.html

20: Azande References "Azande - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage, Relationships, Living conditions (2011). Retrieved from: http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Brazil-to-Congo-Republic-of/Azande.html. Azande Online (2005). Retrieved from: http://azande.webs.com/ Zande - Religion and Expressive Culture (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.everyculture.com/Africa-Middle-East/Zande-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html

21: Azande Picture References Azande Granary (1930). Retrieved from: http://southernsudan.prm.ox.ac.uk/details.php?db=p&add=1998.341.759.2_O.jpg&a=1998.341.759.2&cap=Zande+granary+ Azande Man (2005). Retrieved from: http://azande.webs.com/ Azande Warrior (2010). Retrieved from: http://splitter.cing.com/ Azande Which Doctor (2011). Retrieved from: http://anthr.religion.nielsonpi.com/mod7.html Azande whistle (2010). Retrieved from: http://www.kaypacha.com.ar/en/instruments/safricano/safricano.htm Democratic Republic of the Congo (2010). Retrieved from: http://thepsycheofmikey.blogspot.com/2010/06/azande.html Herbal Medicine (2011). Retrieved from: http://healthmaven.blogspot.com/2010_08_22_archive.html Two Azande Warriors (June, 2010). Retrieved from: http://thepsycheofmikey.blogspot.com/2010/06/azande.html Witchcraft book (2000). Retrieved from: http://e-bookdown.com/6774-witchcraft-oracles-and-magic-among-the-azande.html

22: Bantu Kenya Culture and Traditions (2010) http://spirittourism.com/culture/kenya-culture-traditions/ "Who are the Bantu People?" (2007) Retrived from: . "Bantu Religon" (2007) Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/topics/bantu-religion.htm# "Somali Bantu Culture." (2003) Retrieved from: http://www.vdh.state.va.us/epidemiology/DiseasePrevention/Programs/NewcomerHealth/ethbantu.htm The History of the Bantu People. (2007) Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.com/who-are-the-bantu-people.htm

23: Bantu Pictures | Bantu Culture, Kids Net http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.kidspast.com/images/bantu.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.kidspast.com/world-history/0098-bantu-peoples.php&usg= Bantu Men hasterbin.wordpress.com Children of Somali http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.naturesalbum.com/Safari/images/MaaKidsCeremony.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.naturesalbum.com

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Laurie Chapman
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  • Lauren, Nick, Kayla
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