BC: Contact Numbers and Outreach for Oklahoma Child Abuse Hotline 1-800-522-3511 Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth 1-866-335-9288 OKDHS Child Abuse Prevention 405-271-7611 | This is Alexis. She died as a result of child abuse from the hands of her stepmother in 2009, in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Someone may have been able to prevent her death by a simple phone call... | Alexis Morris. http://newsok.com/shawnee-stepmother-convicted-in-child-abuse-death/article/3693598/?page=2
FC: Child Abuse | http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603374842848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603374897848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater | 2 1/2 year old boy before protective care. | Same 2 1/2 year old 3 months after protective care | By Lauren Danielson Sayyada Raza and Alisha Estle
1: Child Abuse In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and the Department for Children and Families define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child. Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the schools and communities the child interacts with. There are many forms of predators: immediate family members, neighbors, strangers, trusting figures such as teachers, members of clergy, and professionals. It is not factually stated, however, but predators typically seek employment or housing near and around children with the possibilities of first-hand care of children. Child abuse is growing in numbers ever year. Since 1980, the number of cases of child abuse has increased by 350%, with only 28% of cases actually being reported. That is a staggering amount. | By Steven Perlberg. July 16, 2012. http://thinkprogress.org//ealth/2012/ /study-child-abuse-and-hospitalization-rates-rise-with-increased-foreclosures/ | July 19, 2012. Corbis-42-32213830.jpg | Statistics: --In 2005, nearly 900,000 children in the US were victims of child abuse, neglect, and maltreatment: 90% suffered neglect, 3.6% suffered medical neglect, 13% of physical abuse, 4% sexually abused, and 1% psychologically mistreated. --Every year 3.3 million reports of child abuse are made in the US alone, therefore giving the US the worst record of all of the industrialized nations at losing five children every day due to abuse-related deaths. --An alarming 80% of children that die from all forms of abuse are under the age of 4. --It is estimated that between 50-60% of child fatalities due to maltreatment are not recorded as such on their death certificates. --Up to 30% of abused and neglected children will later continue the abuse to their own children, continuing the horrible cycle of abuse. --One-third to two-thirds of child maltreatment cases involve substance abuse from caretakers to some degree, therefore increasing the likelihood of abuse up to three times, and up to four times more likely for neglect.
2: Corbis-BE072206.jpg | This is a normal occurrence with some abuse victims. Children, tied up, chained up, handcuffed to water heaters, beds, at home, orphanages, psychiatric hospitals, foster homes, and many other places. Child abuse typically consists of physical abuse such as hitting with hands, fists, objects, also burning with cigarettes, stoves, hot water, grease, and throwing children against walls, slamming them against items, or kicking them. | The neglect they incur is outrageous. These children develop personality traits of their own to help deal with the abuse. Some develop anger, some develop sexual acts with others, some lash out at other children, others regress into acting younger than their age, so far as to wearing diapers and deliberately using the restroom in them. Some develop multiple personalities, and some children turn into sociopaths, murderers, rapists, and sexual deviants of their own.
3: Functionalist Perspective Child abuse occurs in every socioeconomic level, across ethnic and cultural lines, within all religions and at all levels of education. Some African cultures believe that girls should undergo Female Genital Mutilation. These girls are a mere few days old to fourteen years of age. Their external genitalia is removed or mutilated with either a knife, razor, or scissors, and always without anesthesia and without consent. Although this is primarily in the country of Africa, there are large numbers of this happening in the US too. Functionalism interprets each part of society in terms of how it contributes to the stability of the whole society. Society is more than the sum of its parts; rather, each part of society is functional for the stability of the whole society. From a functionalist perspective, the family performs it's role of ensuring social stability, it provides its members with basic needs and also provides primary socialization. The functionalist view of child abuse generally leans towards thinking that the abuser had been abused. This in turn socializes into believing the behavior is normal, or that they were a deviant of some sort, not properly taught the norms and values of society. Since the problem of child abuse is the failure of their family unit to socialize, then a solution based on this perspective would be free classes for parents to help cope with being a parent, free therapy, too, for struggling families. Therefore, attempting to fix the nuclear unit before any abuse starts. | www.facebook.com?FightingAgainstChildAbuse
4: Upper: Malnourished Infant - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024577848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater Middle: cigarette burns - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024892848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater Lower: 1yr old lower back bruising - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024707848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater
5: Interactionist Perspective Interactionism is a way of explaining human interactions on a micro-sociological level. It has grown in popularity over the last sixty years. This theoretical approach to sociology is concerned with how individuals communicate and adjust to each other over the course of a social interaction. An important aspect to control the other individual during the social event to meet your own objective or goal. It is believed that this can be applied to child abuse in a very useful manner. Interactionists point out that the interactions between two people determine the behaviors of each. The focus is more on the current social encounter and no-so-much the concern with the backgrounds of the individuals involved. Where child abuse is concerned, interactionists take the contributions of the child to the situation that results in the abuse, and also that of the parent. It is suggested that perhaps some children are capable of exposing a lack of parenting skills in a parent that drives them towards abuse. Another suggestion is that a lack of parenting skills and the ability to deal with a difficult situation on the part of the parent can lead to abuse as well. The downside to this perspective is that the parties involved in the social interaction that results in abuse are not viewed from a macro level where social influences and other factors can help explain the situation. Child abuse is more than just bruises and broken bones. As physical abuse might be more visible, other types of abuse, such as emotional abuse and neglect, also leave deep, lasting scars on its victims. The earlier that abused children get help, the greater the chance they have to heal and break they cycle rather than perpetuating it. By learning about common signs of abuse and what you can do to intervene, you can make a huge difference in a child's life. | 18 February 2001. http://i185.photobucket.com/albums/x134/ralphjonesmusic/childabuse1-gold-for-web.jpg | Child abuse is a cycle... 1/3 of abused or neglected children will eventually victimize their own children.
6: All types of child abuse and neglect leave lasting scars. Some of these scars might be physical, but emotional scarring has long -lasting effects throughout the victim's life which is damaging to a child's sense of self - the ability to have healthy relationships, and the ability to function at home, at work, or at school. | Some lasting effects include: -- Lack of trust and relationship difficulties. If you cannot trust your parents, who can you trust? Abuse by a primary caregiver damages the most fundamental relationship as a child that you will safely, reliably get your physical and emotional needs met by the person who is responsible for your care. Without this base, it is very difficult to learn to trust people or know who is "trustworthy." | -- Core feelings of being "worthless" or "damaged." If you have been told repeatedly as a child that you are stupid or no good, it is very difficult to overcome these core feelings. Sexual abuse survivors, who carry around with them the stigma and shame surrounding the abuse, often struggle with a feeling of being damaged. -- Trouble regulating emotions. Abused children cannot express emotions safely. As a result, the emotions get stuffed down, coming out in unexpected ways. Adult survivors of child abuse can struggle with unexplained anxiety, depression, or anger. They may turn to alcohol or drugs to numb out the painful feelings. | Iranian 4yr old with raccoon eyes - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024807848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater | By Mary Marsh. 12 February 2001. http://wzpo1.ask.com/r?t=a&d=mys&s=ads&c=p&app=aoth&ti=1&ai=30752&l=dis&o=APN10400&sv=0a5c4236&ip=4461f6eb&cu.wz=0&u=http%3A%2F%2Fnews.bbc.co.uk%2Folmedia%2F1165000%2Fimages%2F_1165768_abused300.jpg
7: Conflict Perspective The Conflict Perspective is viewed on a macro-level of our society, its structures, and institutions. It explains various aspects of our social world by looking at which groups have power. Social problems in the conflict perspective emerge from the continuing conflict between groups in our society - based on social class, gender, race, or ethnicity - and on the conflict, the dominant groups typically win. Groups such as WHO (The World Health Organization) estimates that international studies reveal that approximately 20% of women and 5–10% of men report being sexually abused as children, while 25–50% of all children report being physically abused, as many children are subject to emotional abuse (sometimes referred to as psychological abuse) and to neglect. Death rates for children suffering of abuse in America shows that in 2005, more than 3.5million children were reported as victims from abuse and/or neglect. The staggering truth is that before today is over, four children will DIE because their little bodies cannot bear any more abuse. | From 2005 to 2010, Oklahoma State Department of Health listed a total of 282 deaths of children, with 211 of the cases being from homicide, accidents, sleep-related deaths, or from abuse/neglect. That is 75% of child deaths in five years. As found out by local news channels in June 2012, The Oklahoma State Health Department (OKDHS) is about to lose federal funding due to failing to prevent child deaths in the children's own homes or foster homes. Oklahoma is known as a state that believes the child who is abused, is better off with the biological family who is also the abuser. Kelsey Smith-Briggs is a prime example (born December 28, 2002 - dead October 11, 2005). Her death was a result of her stepfather, Michael Porter, using blunt-fore trauma to the abdomen. In most child abuse cases, children are submitted to terror, violence, and intimidation. The people who abuse are generally bigger than the victim and use their physical power to overcome them. | Kelsey - http://newsok.com/oklahoma-threatened-with-loss-of-federal-funding/article/3674926
8: The Feminist Perspective Women who have children are "supposed" to be "nurturing," "loving," "caring," and "understanding." The child abuse establishment gives responsibility for abuse to the mothers regardless of who abuses the child or children. The system typically responds less harsh to the women who "allow" the abuse to happen, and the child is removed from the home into foster care if a mother is deemed "unfit." It is researched that child abuse viewed through battery of women reveals that both problems originate from conflicts of gender identity and over male authority. And although it is more uncommon for women to offend, it still happens. Women are more than capable of psychological abuse towards children, sexual abuse, and physical abuse. The United Kingdom alone has approximately 64,000 registered female sex-offenders in their country alone. But in most cases the mother is also in an abusive relationship with a male abuser. The male control increases the entrapment and inequalities of the woman turns the family into a "patriarchal mothering." This is a system where the man is dominant over the woman. The best way to prevent child abuse in the patriarchal mother, is through "female empowerment." | child pregnancy - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024892848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater
9: 1.) Educate. 2.) Offer help and services. 3.) Training for bystanders to identify abusers and victims. 4.) Death penalty for offenders of more severe cases other than abuse resulting in the death of the child. 5.) Stricter punishment for bystanders who do not report known abuse or abusers. | Solutions | Above: deceased toddler - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024457848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater Below: handprint - http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150603024187848&set=a.10150603024087848.445459.332695127847&type=3&theater | www.corbis.com. Corbis-42-23791593.jpg