FC: The Civil War | By: Lucas J. Harvey
2: Table Of Contents | -Introduction- Chapter 1- Union Generals -Ulysses Grant -William T. Sherman -George B. McClellan -Benjamin Harrison -Christopher Columbus Andrews Chapter 2- Confederate Generals -Stonewall Jackson -Winifield Scott -Robert E. Lee -Joseph E. Johnson -J.E.B. Stuart Chapter 3- Union Political Leaders -Abraham Lincoln -Benjamin Butler -Lafayette S. Foster -Thomas Holliday Hicks -Frederick Douglass | Chapter 4- Confederate Political Leaders - Jefferson Davis -Alexander Stephens -Franklin Pierce -John C. Breckingridge -C.G. Memminger Chapter 5- Major Battles of The Civil War -Fort Sumter, 1861 -First Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861 -Battle of Wilson's Creek, August 10, 1861 -Battle of Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862 -Siege of Vicksburg, May 18- July 4, 1863 -Battle of Gettysburg, July 1- 3, 1863 Chapter 6- The End and Effects of The War -Lincoln's Death -Appomattox Courthouse -Gettysburg Address -Union Strategy -Confederate Strategy -Conclusion
3: The American Civil War was fought between the years of 1861 through the year of 1865. This war was fought over if slavery was morally right or not. Slavery was legal in Southern Part of the United States, but was not legal in the North. e in the southern United States. The American Civil War was fought by the Union (North) and the newly formed Confederate States of America (South). | Introduction
4: Chapter 1 Union Generals
5: Ulysses S. Grant | Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was a successful military commander in the American Civil War. Under Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military; the war, and secession, ended with the surrender of Robert E. Lee's army at Appomattox Court House. Grant fought and lead many battles such as Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Fort Henry.
6: William T. Sherman | William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier. He served as a General in the Union Army during the Civil War, for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate State.
7: George B. McClellan | George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union.
8: Benjamin Harrison | Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was a Recruiter for the Union Army. Harrison recruited throughout northern Indiana to raise a regiment.He was commissioned as a second lieutenant. In August 1862, when the regiment left Indiana to join the Union Army at Louisville, Kentucky, Harrison was promoted by Morton to the rank of colonel, and his regiment was commissioned as the 70th Indiana Infantry.
9: Christopher Columbus Andrews | Christopher Columbus Andrews (October 27, 1829 – September 21, 1922) was an American soldier. During the Civil War, Andrews rose to the rank of brigadier general and at its close was brevetted as a major general. Andrews was commissioned captain in the 3rd Minnesota Infantry. Captured by Confederates in Tennessee in July 1862, he was held as a prisoner of war until October, when he was exchanged. He returned to his regiment as lieutenant colonel and participated in the Vicksburg Campaign.
10: Chapter 2 Confederate Generals
11: Stonewall Jackson | Michelle Franks | Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee. His military career includes the Valley Campaign of 1862 and his service as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863.
12: Winifield Scott | Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army General. Scott was credited for conceiving the Union strategy known as the Anaconda Plan that would be used to defeat the Confederacy. He served as Commanding General of the United States Army for twenty years.
13: Robert E. Lee | Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American career military officer who sided with the Confederates .Union General Ulysses S. Grant's campaigns bore down on the Confederacy in 1864 and 1865, and despite inflicting heavy casualties, Lee was unable to turn the war's tide. He would ultimately surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. By this time, the former had assumed supreme command of the remaining Southern armies; other Confederate forces swiftly capitulated after Lee's surrender. Lee rejected the proposal of a sustained insurgency against the North and called for reconciliation between the two sides.
14: Joseph E. Johnston | Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer, serving with distinction in the Mexican-American War and Seminole Wars, and was also one of the most senior general officers in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. Johnston was trained as a civil engineer at the U.S. Military Academy and by 1860 achieved the rank of brigadier general as Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army. When his home state of Virginia seceded from the Union, Johnston resigned his commission, the highest-ranking officer to join the Confederacy.
15: Amanda Fields | Shanna Henry | J.E.B Stuart | James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was a United States Army officer from the U.S. state of Virginia who later became a Confederate States Army general during the American Civil War. He was known to his friends as "Jeb", from the initials of his given names. Stuart was a cavalry commander known for his mastery of reconnaissance and the use of cavalry in support of offensive operations.
16: Chapter 3 Union Political Leaders
17: Abraham Lincoln | Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional and political crisis. In so doing he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. On April 15, 1865, Lincoln was Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
18: Benjamin Butler | Carla Wang | Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives. In 1868, as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Butler had a prominent role in the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson. As Chairman of the House Committee on Reconstruction, Butler authored the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant, that gave federal authority to prosecute and destroy the Klan in the South. Butler authored, along with Sen. Charles Sumner, the Civil Rights Act of 1875, signed into law by President Grant.
19: Lafayette S. Foster | Lafayette Sabine Foster (November 22, 1806 – September 19, 1880) was a nineteenth-century American politician and lawyer from Connecticut. He served in the United States Senate from 1855 to 1867 and was a judge in the Connecticut Supreme Court from 1870 to 1876.Foster was editor of the Republican, a Whig newspaper out of Connecticut, and served in the Connecticut House of Representatives from 1839 to 1840, 1846 to 1848 and 1854, serving as Speaker of the House for three years.
20: Thomas Holliday Hicks | Thomas Holliday Hicks (September 2, 1798 – February 14, 1865) was a politician in the divided border-state of Maryland during the Civil War. As Governor, opposing the Democrats, his views accurately reflected the conflicting local loyalties. He was pro-slavery but anti-secession. Under pressure to call the General Assembly into special session, he held it in the pro-Union town of Frederick, where he was able to keep the state from seceding. In December 1862, he was appointed to the U.S. Senate, where he endorsed Lincoln’s re-election in 1864, but died soon afterwards
21: Frederick Douglass | Frederick Douglass (born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, (February 1818 – February 20, 1895) was an African-American social reformer, orator, writer and statesman. After escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement. He stood as a counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Many Northerners also found it hard to believe that such a great orator had been a slave.
22: Chapter 4 Confederate Political Leaders
23: Jefferson Davis | Jefferson F. Davis (June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889) was the President of the Confederate States of America during the entire Civil War, 1861 to 1865. He took personal charge of the Confederate war plans but was unable to find a strategy to defeat Lincoln and the Union. His diplomatic efforts failed to gain recognition from any foreign country. At home he paid little attention to the collapsing Confederate economy; the government printed more and more paper money to cover the war's expenses, leading to runaway inflation.
24: Alexander Stephens | Alexander Hamilton Stephens (February 11, 1812 – March 4, 1883) was an American politician from Georgia and Vice President of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. He also served as a U.S. Representative from Georgia and as the 50th Governor of Georgia from 1882 until his death in 1883. He was an old Whig Party friend and ally of Abraham Lincoln; they met in the closing days of the Civil War but could not come to terms.
25: Franklin Pierce | Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was the 14th President of the United States. He did not have large involvement in the Civil War, but his reputation was destroyed during the War when he declared support for the Confederacy, and personal correspondence between Pierce and the Confederate President Jefferson Davis was leaked to the press.
26: John C. Breckenridge | John Cabell Breckinridge (January 16, 1821 – May 17, 1875) was a lawyer and politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both houses of Congress and in 1857, became the 14th and youngest-ever Vice President of the United States (1857–1861). Serving in the U.S. Senate at the outbreak of the Civil War, he was expelled after joining the Confederate Army. He remains the only Senator of the United States convicted of treason against the United States of America by the Senate. He was appointed Confederate Secretary of War late in the war.
27: C. G. Memminmer | Christopher Gustavus Memminger (January 9, 1803 – March 7, 1888) was a prominent German-American political leader and the first Secretary of the Treasury for the Confederate States of America. Memminger was considered a moderate on the secession issue, but after Lincoln's election, Memminger decided secession was necessary. When South Carolina seceded from the United States in 1860, Memminger was asked to write the Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union which outlined the reasons for secession.
28: Chapter 5 Major Battles of The Civil War
29: Fort Sumter, 1861 | The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–14, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U.S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor.
30: First Battle of Bull Run July 21, 1861 | The First Battle of Bull Run, was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington, D.C. It was the first major battle of the Civil War. The Union forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements time to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by a disorganized retreat of the Union forces.
31: Battle of Wilson's Creek August 10, 1861 | The Battle of Wilson's Creek, also known as the Battle of Oak Hills, was the first major battle of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the Civil War. Fought on August 10, 1861, near Springfield, Missouri between Union forces and the Missouri State Guard, it is sometimes called the "Bull Run of the West."
32: Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 | The Battle of Shiloh, also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River deep into Tennessee and was encamped principally at Pittsburg Landing on the west bank of the river. . The Confederates achieved considerable success on the first day, but were ultimately defeated on the second day.
33: Siege of Vicksburg May 18- July 4, 1863 | The Siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the Civil War. In a series of maneuvers. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Vicksburg led by Gen. John C. Pemberton into the defensive lines surrounding the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi. When two major assaults (May 19 and 22, 1863) against the Confederate fortifications were repulsed with heavy casualties, Grant decided to besiege the city beginning on May 25.
34: Battle of Gettysburg July 1- 3, 1863 | The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania between Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North.
35: Chapter 6 The End and Effects of The War
36: Lincoln's Death | Abraham Lincoln was shot on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, while attending the play, Our American Cousin, at Ford's Theatre as the American Civil War was drawing to a close. The assassination occurred five days after the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, surrendered to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and the Union Army of the Potomac. Lincoln was the first American president to be assassinated, The assassination of Lincoln was planned and carried out by the well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth.
37: Appomattox Courthouse | The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was the final engagement of Confederate States Army General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, hoping to join his army with the Confederate forces in North Carolina. Union forces pursued and cut off the Confederate retreat at Appomattox Court House. When he realized that the cavalry was backed up by two corps of Union infantry, he had no choice but to surrender.
38: Gettysburg Address | The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, one of the best-known in American history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg.
39: Union Strategy | The strategies for the North included: the defense of Washington, the blockade of all Southern ports, the control of the Mississippi River, and the loyalty of the Border States. By late 1862 - the Emancipation Proclamation was added as a military measure, and helped prevent the South from gaining any diplomatic recognition. Once the Federals were in the position to assume the offensive simultaneously in the West and the East they did so.
40: Confederate Strategy | Strategies employed by the South included: the defense of Richmond, the defense of the coastal areas, gaining the Border States into the Confederacy, the "offensive defense" of taking the war into Maryland and Pennsylvania, blockade running and privateers, as well as diplomatic efforts to gain diplomatic assistance from Britain and/or France. The South utilized the few resources it had effectively, but the Southern railroads could not keep up to the demands placed on it, unlike the Northern railroads, which grew during the war.
41: Conclusion | Toward the end of the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America were losing ground and resources. The Final blow to the Confederacy was The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, where Robert E. Lee Surrendered to Union Forces. Also, at the end of the War, Congress passed Lincoln's "Emancipation Proclamation". which freed all slaves that were in the Union.
42: Bibliography | Russell, Sharmen A. Fredericks Douglass. New York: Main Line Book, 1988. Print Rubel, David. "Abraham Lincoln 16th President." Scholastic Encyclopedia of the Presidents and Their Times. New York, NY: Scholastic, 2009. 73-77. Print. Deverell, William, and Deborah G. White. "Chapter 16: The Civil War." United States History: Growth and Development: Beginnings to 1914. Austin, Texas: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010. 504-47. Print. Author N/A. "Article Title: N/A." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n/a. Web. 20 May 2014.
43: Ford, Carin T. The American Civil War: An Overview. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2004. Print. Stanchak, John E. "The Siege Of Vicksburg." Civil War. New York: Dorling Kindersley Pub., 2000. 44-45. Print.