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Computers: A History

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FC: Computers: A History

1: Computers: A History

2: 1939 | Hewlett-Packard is Founded. David Packard and Bill Hewlett found Hewlett-Packard in a Palo Alto, California garage. Their first product was the HP 200A Audio Oscillator, which rapidly becomes a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. Walt Disney Pictures ordered eight of the 200B model to use as sound effects generators for the 1940 movie “Fantasia.”

3: David Packard and Bill Hewlett in their Palo Alto, California Garage

4: 1940 | The Complex Number Calculator (CNC) is completed. In 1939, Bell Telephone Laboratories completed this calculator, designed by researcher George Stibitz. In 1940, Stibitz demonstrated the CNC at an American Mathematical Society conference held at Dartmouth College. Stibitz stunned the group by performing

5: calculations remotely on the CNC (located in New York City) using a Teletype | connected via special telephone lines. This is considered to be the first demonstration of remote access computing.

6: 1944 | The first Colossus is operational at Bletchley Park. Designed by British engineer Tommy Flowers, the Colossus was designed to break the complex Lorenz ciphers used by the Nazis during WWII. A total of ten Colossi were delivered to Bletchley, each using 1,500 vacuum tubes and a series of pulleys transported continuous rolls of punched paper tape containing possible

7: solutions to a particular code. Colossus reduced the time to break Lorenz messages from weeks to hours. The machine's existence was not made public until the 1970s.

8: 1951 | The UNIVAC I delivered to the U.S. Census Bureau was the first commercial computer to attract

9: widespread public attention. Although manufactured by Remington Rand, the machine often was mistakenly referred to as the "IBM UNIVAC." Remington Rand eventually sold 46 machines at | more than $1 million each.F.O.B. factory $750,000 plus $185,000 for a high speed printer. Floor space: 943 cubic feet

10: 1965 | Digital Equipment Corp. introduced the PDP-8, the first commercially successful minicomputer.The PDP-8 sold for $18,000, one-fifth the price of a small IBM 360 mainframe. The | speed, small size, and reasonable cost enabled the PDP-8 to go into thousands of manufacturing plants, small businesses, and scientific laboratories.

11: 1968 | The Apollo Guidance Computer made its debut orbiting the Earth on Apollo 7. A year later, it steered Apollo 11 to the lunar surface. Astronauts communicated with the computer by punching two-digit codes and the appropriate syntactic category into the display and keyboard unit.

12: 1977 | The Apple II became an instant success when released in 1977 with its printed circuit motherboard, switching power supply, keyboard, case assembly, manual, game paddles, A/C powercord, and cassette tape with the computer game "Breakout." When hooked up to a color television set, the Apple II produced brilliant color graphics.

14: Apple Computer launched the Macintosh, the first successful mouse-driven computer with a graphic user interface, with a single $1.5 million commercial during the 1984 Super Bowl. | 1984

15: Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Macintosh included many of the Lisas features at a much more affordable price: $2,500. Apples commercial played on the theme of George Orwells "1984" and featured the destruction of Big Brother with the power of personal computing found in a Macintosh. Applications that came as part of the package included MacPaint, which made use of the mouse, and MacWrite, which demonstrated WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) word processing.

16: 1992 | “Terminator 2: Judgment Day” opens. Director James Cameron’s sequel to his 1984 hit “The Terminator,” featured ground-breaking special effects done by Industrial Light & Magic. Made for | a record $100 million, it was the most expensive movie ever made at the time. Most of this cost was due to the expense of computer-generated special effects (such as image morphing) throughout the film. Terminator 2 is one of many films that critique civilization’s frequent blind trust in technology.

18: 1994

19: Yahoo is founded. Founded by Stanford graduate students Jerry Yang and David Filo, Yahoo started out as "Jerry's Guide to the World Wide Web" before being renamed. Yahoo originally resided on two machines, Akebono and Konishiki, both named after famous Sumo wrestlers. Yahoo would quickly expand to become one of the Internet’s most popular search engines.

21: Credit to: Name, Year; Name, Year; Name, Year; Name, Year; Name, Year; Name, Year; Stuff no one reads; Person who worked really hard on this but isn't getting much credit; and (most importantly)... ME!

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