S: Concentration Camp Tours - Europe 2012 By: Shelly Williams
FC: Concentration Camp Tours | Europe 2012 | By: Shelly Williams
1: Europe 2012 | Concentration Camp Tours | By: Shelly Williams
2: D a c h a u
3: The First Concentration Camp Opened in 1933
4: The end of the train tracks | leading to the entrance of Dachau
6: "Arbeit Macht Frei" | Work Makes You Free | Guard Tower
7: Perimeter Fence
8: Maintenance Building | Anniversary of Liberation Day | Memorial Wreath USA | Memorial Wall
9: "Never Again"
10: The Barracks
11: The Washroom | The Bathroom | View from within the barracks
12: Pathway to the Crematorium
13: The New Crematorium
14: Room where the prisoners enter and remove their clothing for their upcoming "showers" | "Brausebad" Shower Entering the gas chamber
15: The fake shower heads | Top: Peep hole for the SS to look inside to see if all the prisoners are dead Bottom: Water supply
16: Method for gas pellet delivery from the outside
17: Rooms to store corpses until cremation
19: Cremation ovens
20: Old Crematorium
21: Path to Cremated Remains and Their Final Resting Place
22: M a u t h a u s e n
24: The Outer Courtyard...
25: and the Guard Towers
26: Main Gate of Mauthausen | It is estimated that there were 100,000 deaths out of 200,000 prisoners in Mauthausen and its sub-camps.
27: The Wailing Wall | Incoming prisoners were chained to this wall, sometimes for many hours at a time and up to days before going to the barracks. Many prisoners died while chained to the Wailing Wall.
28: The Barracks | Bunks in the Barracks | The Bathroom | The Wash Room
30: The Camp Jail "In the camp jail called 'bunker' some 4600 women and men were imprisoned from winter 1939/40 to April 1945. About 4200 of them were assassinated by gas, shooting or hanging."
32: Corner for Neck-Shots "In this semi-dark room, opposite to a crematory stove, was an implement for neck-shots. Some sort of height measuring gadget. The shot was fired at the victim standing in front of the measuring gadget through a slot which allowed the headboard to be moved up and down." | "Exekutions Statte" Execution Site/Place
33: The Iron Girder "Below the iron girder, which was used as a gallows, stood a folding-table. Hundreds of persons of all nationality - primarily Soviet citizens and Jews - were put to death here." | "Galgen Richtstatte" Gallows Place
35: Gas Chamber "The gaz chamber was camouflaged to an ordinary bath room with the help of showers and water pipes. Cyclon B-Gas was flown through a small shaft with sucking-in and exhaust appliances. The operation itself was commanded from a separate room. On April 29, 1945, just a few days before the liberation, the sucking-in and exhaust canal was dismantled." | "Gaskammer"
36: "Leichen-Raum" Corpses Room
37: "Sexierraum" Dissection Room | The Dissection Room "This chamber served as dissecting-room. Here, too, tattooed parts of the skin of corpses were drawn off and gold-teeth were broken out."
38: "Krematorium" Crematorium
39: Memorials to family members are abundant in Mauthausen
40: Memorials presented from various donors
43: Stone Quarry & Stairs of Death
44: Photo Left: Stairs of Death Prisoners died on these stairs either from the torturous treatment by the SS guards or from starvation, exhaustion, and/or the elements. | Photo Right: Parachute Jump Prisoners were thrown off these cliffs by the SS guards or they chose to jump voluntarily in order to escape torture.
48: G u s e n | Gusen One "Jourhaus" Gatehouse | Front of Gatehouse | Back of Gatehouse | An estimated 37,000 out of 40,000 prisoners were killed in Gusen
49: Gusen One Gatehouse "The imposing granite gatehouse and office of the Gusen One camp also still stands, converted by a "creative" Austrian architect into a luxury villa that houses a family with children who play hop-scotch on the driveway. Surrounded by similar luxury houses, it would be impossible for a casual bystander to recognise this blood-drenched site for what it is." | Front of Former Gatehouse | Back of Former Gatehouse
50: A u s c h w i t z | "Arbeit Macht Frei" - Work Makes You Free
51: Looking to the left and to the right as you enter the main gate | Rows of Barracks | Rows of barracks
52: Perimeter Fence & Camp Kitchen
53: Guard Towers
54: Auschwitz was the largest Nazi German Concentration Camp and Death Camp. In the years 1940-1945, the Nazis deported at least 1,300,000 to Auschwitz: | 1,100,000 Jews 140,000 - 150,000 Poles 23,000 Roma Gypsies) 15,000 Soviet Prisoners of War 25,000 Prisoners from other ethnic groups 1,100,000 of these people died in Auschwitz. Approximately 90% of the victims were Jews. The SS murdered the majority of them in the gas chambers. | Block 4 "Zaglada" Extermination
56: Photos Left: Pictures from the Auschwitz Museum showing the condition of prisoners at liberation Photo Above: The cremated remains of holocaust victims are contained in this monument
57: Model of the Birkenau Gas Chamber & Crematorium Photo Upper Left: Prisoners walking down the ramp to the "dressing room." Photo Upper Right & Lower Left Prisoners in the fake "showers"
58: Material Proofs of Crimes (from Auschwitz & Birkenau)
60: Hair of the prisoners was shaved and then used to make other items such as rugs, mattresses, socks, and gaskets. | Disabled people were imprisoned in the concentration camp. Most of the devices in this photo were the result of injuries in World War I.
61: Prisoners were encouraged to write their names on their luggage. Part of the propaganda that the prisoners would get all their personal possessions back upon their release.
62: Upper Photos: Portraits of those imprisoned in Auschwitz Photo Left: Prisoner Staff Cards
63: "The Road of Death" This photo shows women and children walking to the gas chamber. Note the boy in the front holding the hands of two younger children. | Tattoos Because of the extreme change in the physical appearance of prisoners due to a starvation diet and slave labor, they became unrecognizable to their prison photos. Therefore, the SS turned to tattoos as the means of identifying prisoners.
64: Food for the Prisoners This represents the daily rations provided to those imprisoned at Auschwitz: Tea Piece of Bread Watery Soup | Sculpture of the hungry, tortured victims of the concentration camp
65: "Nazis deported to KL Auschwitz 232000 children and youth; including 216000 Jewish children, 11000 gypsy children, 3000 Polish children and 1000 Slav children of other nationalities. The majority of Jewish children perished in the gas chamber immediately upon arrival." In January 1945, only 650 children were liberated.
66: "Several hundred women prisoners, mainly Jewish were held in two upstairs rooms of this block and used as human guinea-pigs for sterilization experiments conducted by Prof. Dr. Carl Clauberg, a German gynaecologist, from April 1943 to May 1944. Some of them died from the treatment they received, others were murdered so that autopsies could be performed on them. Those who survived left with permanent injuries."
67: Block 10 Cell block 10 was used for medical experiments on men, women and children by German doctors. While most children were executed upon their arrival, children of multiple births were spared execution so that medical experiments could be performed on them.
69: Courtyard Between Blocks 10 & 11 "From 1941 to 1943, the SS shot several thousand people at the wall in this courtyard between Blocks 10 and 11. Most of those executed here were Polish political prisoners, above all, the leaders and members of clandestine organizations and people who helped escapees or facilitated contacts with the outside world. Poles who had been sentenced to death in nearby towns were also brought here to be shot, including men, women, and even children who had been taken hostage in revenge for operations of the Polish resistance against the German occupation. Prisoners of other nationalities and ethnic origins, including Jews and Soviet POWs, were also sometimes shot at this wall. The SS administered brutal punishments here: floggings, and also the torture know as "the post", in which prisoners were hung from a post by their wrists with their arms twisted behind their backs. The execution wall was dismantled in 1944 on the orders of the camp authorities. Executions were subsequently carried out elsewhere, most often in the gas chambers and crematoria at Auschwitz II - Birkenau."
70: Remembrances at the firing squad wall
71: "The Post" This post is where prisoners were tortured | Windows were covered so that prisoners could not see what occurred in the courtyard.
72: "Block 11 was known as the 'Death Block'. It served several functions, at which the most important was its role as the central camp jail. Male and female prisoners from all parts of the camp complex were held in this building. Most of these people were suspected by the camp Gestapo of involvement in clandestine activities: attempting to escape, organizing mutinies, and maintaining contacts with the outside world. Poles from outside the camp who had been arrested for rendering aid to prisoners were imprisoned here too. Following brutal interrogations, they were in most cases sentenced to death by shooting. In the early years of the camp the Strafkampanie (penal unit) and Erziehungskompanie (re-education unit) were also held in this block. The prisoners of the penal unit, to which almost all the Jewish men and Polish priests held in the camp at that time were sent on arrival, were assigned to the most back-breaking work; most of them died. For some time the block also held the Sonderkommando, the special unit of prisoners employed to burn the bodies of the dead."
73: Block 11 - The Camp Prison
76: Public Hangings "In the centre of the area, the SS officer in charge of the roll-call received reports on the number of prisoners present. If there seemed to be anyone missing, prisoners had to continue to stand at attention until the SS were satisfied - regardless of the weather, sometimes for twelve hours or more. To intimidate the prisoners, the SS also conducted public hangings here. The largest such execution was carried out on 19 July 1943, when twelve Poles suspected of helping three other prisoners to escape and of maintaining contacts with the outside world were hanged together on purpose-built gallows."
78: Auschwitz 1 Gas Chamber & Crematorium
79: Plaque hanging on the wall: "You are in a building where the SS murdered thousands of people. Please maintain silence here: remember their suffering and show respect for their memory." | The Gas Chamber
80: Entering the Crematory
84: B i r k e n a u
85: Nearly 1.1 million people were murdered here | Also known as Auschwitz II - the Extermination Camp
89: The incoming prisoners arrived in a train car on these tracks. They disembarked on the unloading ramp (photo upper left). An SS physician would tell them to go left or right. Right meant they would perform slave labor at the camp and would go through the gate (photo above right). Left meant they crossed the tracks to the left and walked straight to the gas chamber (photo lower left).
90: Those prisoners told to go to the left, took this road directly to the gas chamber
91: Women's Camp
93: The Women's Barracks
94: The bunks and the stove inside the barracks
95: All that stands today in the Men's Camp are the stoves and chimneys that were in the barracks.
96: Birkenau Gas Chambers & Crematoriums Four crematoriums were built and went into use in 1943 in the Birkenau Concentration Camp. "At the end of the war, in connection with the operation intended to remove the evidence of their crimes, the camp authorities ordered the demolition of the furnaces and the crematorium building in November 1944. On January 20, 1945, the SS blew up whatever had not been removed."
98: Ruins of Crematorium II
99: Ruins of Crematorium III
100: Birkenau Memorials
102: View of the gatehouse and the train tracks that brought the prisoners to Birkenau
103: The train tracks end just in front of the crematorium
104: Path from the end of the railroad tracks to the disinfecting showers
105: "Zentralsauna" Showers "In this building, brought into operation at the end of 1943, newly arrived prisoners designated by the SS for forced labour in the concentration camp were registered and disinfected. From now on they would be known only by a prisoner number which was tattooed on their forearms. Here they were also issued with striped prisoner uniforms and had all their body hair removed. The SS also made additional 'selections' here, sending pregnant women to be murdered in the gas chambers. The poor state of hygiene in the | concentration camp, and the hordes of insects brought illness and epidemics which threatened the efficient functioning of the camp and the health of the SS who ran it. This building was therefore used in periodic campaigns to delouse the prisoners and their clothing.
106: The wheel barrow to the left was used to transport cremated remains to the ponds below for disposal.
107: "To the memory of men, women, and the children who fell victim to the Nazi genocide. Here lie their ashes. May their souls rest in peace."
108: T e r e z i n | "Arbeit Macht Frei" Work Makes You Free
109: Records state that there were 58,491 imprisoned in Terezin, a camp designed to hold just 7,000.
110: The main camp is through these two gates | The Courtyard and Block A - Men's Barracks
112: Just a single toilet in each barrack | and a single sink as well
113: This building housed the disinfecting showers
114: Terezin's camp jail
116: The Jail: Hallway 2 Cells Shower
117: Center Door: To the Execution Area Right Door: To the Mortuary
118: Passage way to execution area was 1/2 kilometer long
119: Tunnel to execution area
120: The Gallows These were only used once for three prisoners
121: Firing Squad Most deaths were the result of a firing squad, which were conducted against this wall.
122: The gallows used in Terezin
123: Statue in memorial to the victims "nameless"
125: Just through this tunnel it opens up to the area where the SS lived. They had an in-ground pool (photo lower left) and a cinema (photo lower right) for the SS and their families.
126: A memorial to the victims of the Holocaust is onsite. Each of the columns (photo right) contain the engraved names of the primary concentration camps and a handful of dirt from each (upper right photo)
127: Through this tunnel it opens up to another courtyard where additional blocks were added. This housed more male prisoners and also another camp jail.
128: Camp Jail Cells in the expanded section
129: Barracks in the expanded section
130: Roll Call Area | Guard Tower
131: Women's Camp
132: Women's Jail
133: Exiting the Camp
134: The National Cemetery at the Small Fortress The cemetery is just in front of the Terezin Fortress. Over 10,000 victims are buried here despite the fact that there are only approximately 2,386 grave markers.