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FC: River Valley Civilizations by: Courtney Meeks

1: Table Of Contents | Indus Civilization | pages 2 to 4 | China Civilization | pages 5 to 7 | Mesopotamia Civilization | pages 8 to 11 | Egypt Civilization | pages 12 to 15

2: Indus Civilization | The uniformity in the Indus city planning and construction suggests that they had a very strong government. | The Harappan people created a grid system of planned cities with the major building in the center, they also came up with pluming and sewage systems. | The Indus civilization was between the Indus and Ganges Rivers, and the Himalaya Mountains to the north of it.

3: Indus was the beginning of the Hindu culture, which is polytheistic. The rulers of Harrappan civilization are to believed to have close relations to religion. | Harrappanians had a writing system, but it is yet to be decoded.

4: There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than any other country, including the Muslim world. | India is the largest democracy in the world, the seventh largest country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations. | The decimal and place value systems originated and developed in India. | The housing of the Harrappanians suggest that social division was not great. | The game of chess was invented in India.

5: China | China has dynasties, they are feudalism, and the family is central. | China is located between the Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze Rivers, the Himalaya Mountains and Gobi desert are to the north. | The Chinese society was sharply divided between nobles and peasants, a ruling class of warrior-nobles headed by a king governed China.

6: In China, the family was closely related to religion. The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living family members. | Each character stands for one syllable in Chinese writing. China's spoken language and written language have no relation at all.

7: The Zhou Dynasty produced many of China's innovations such as roads, canals, coined money was introduced, flood control and irrigation, and blast furnaces that produced cast iron. | The Zhou Dynasty is the longest recored dynasty in Chinese history. | Around 1500 B.C.E., oracle bones were used by the Chinese to predict the future. | The Chinese calender is based on the lunar cycle. It is the oldest known calender, originating in 2600 B.C. | Empress Wu of the Tang Dynasty was the only female emperor of China.

8: Mesopotamia Civilization | Mesopotamia is located between the two rivers the Tigris and Euphrates. When the rivers flood and wash back out, it creates silt which is a rich, dark soil. | Religion controlled Mesopotamia's government, so the priests basically ruled Mesopotamia.

9: The Sumerians believed that the priests could hear from Gods. They were polytheistic which means they believed in many gods. | Sumerians created a system of writing called cuneiform. | Sumerian women had more rights than women in many later civilizations.

10: Kings, Landholders, and priests made up the highest level of Sumerian society. Wealthy merchants ranked next. The majority of Sumerian people worked with their hands in fields and workshops. And the lowest level of society were slaves. | Sumerians are believed to have invented the wheel, sail, the plow, and were among the first to use bronze. They also invented arithmetic, geometry, architectural innovations like arches and ramps, and created the sixty second time unit which we still use today for time.

11: During the Babylon Empire, Hammurabi created a code of 282 laws dealing with everything that affected the community. | The Mesopotamian king ordered the construction of the Hanging Gardens for his wife because she grew up in the mountains and was homesick. | During the war, priests did not lead the city. Instead, the men of the city chose a tough fighter who could command the city's soldiers.

12: Ancient Egypt Civilization | Pharaohs ruled as kings and were seen as gods. This type of government is called theocracy. Egypt was divided in to upper and lower kingdoms until 300 B.C. | Ancient Egypt was based around the Nile River, which provided fertile land, silt, and flows from south to north. The rivers very different elevations caused upper and lower Egypt.

13: The Egyptians developed the 365 day calender, a system of written numbers for counting, they used an early form of geometry to survey property boundaries and to build pyramids, and they created medicines, papyrus which is paper, and mummification. | The king, queen, and royal family stood at the top of society. Below them were the wealthy landowners, government officials, priests, and army commanders. The next level is the middle class, which included merchants and artisans. The lowest and largest class of Egypt was the lower class that consisted of farmers, laborers, and slaves.

14: Egyptians created hieroglyphics, a system of writing using pictures. | Egyptians worshiped more than 2,000 gods and goddesses. | The earliest known wine cellars have been discovered in Egypt. | Cement was invented in Egypt.

15: A large number of household objects were invented or used by the ancient Egyptians including lock and keys, combs, scissors, wigs, makeup meant to protect the skin from sunlight but not for beauty, deodorants, toothbrush and toothpaste. | The Egyptians were polytheistic and believed in many gods. The sun god Re, and Osiris the god of the dead were the most important.

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