S: Revolutionary ABC book By: Danielle
FC: Revolutionary ABC BOOK | FREEDOM AND HOPE | -Danielle Sweller-
1: is for John Adams, | John Adams was a Founding Father, the first vice president of the United States and the second president. His son, John Quincy Adams, was the nation's sixth president.He apprenticed to a Mr. Putnam of Worcester, who provided access to the library of the Attorney General of Massachusetts, and was admitted to the Bar in 1761. He participated in an outcry against Writs of Assistance. Adams became a prominent public figure in his activities against the Stamp Act, in response to which he wrote and published a popular article, Essay on the Canon and Feudal Law. He was married on Oct. 25, 1764 and moved to Boston, assuming a prominent position in the patriot movement. He was elected to the Massachusetts Assembly in 1770, and was chosen one of five to represent the colony at the First Continental Congress in 1774. | A
2: Is For Boston Tea Party, | This act of American colonial defiance served as a protest against taxation, which nobody liked. Seeking to boost the troubled East India Company, British Parliament adjusted import duties with the passage of the Tea Act in 1773. On the night of December 16, 1773, Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty boarded three ships in the Boston harbor, dress as Mohawk Indians, and threw 342 chests of tea overboard. This act pushed the two sides closer to war, and everything had gotten worse between the two sides.. | B
3: Is For General Cornwallis, | Who was General Cornwallis? General Cornwallis was a An educated aristocrat with military and political experience, Lord Cornwallis served King George III and Britain as one of the leading generals of the Revolutionary War. He was forced to surrender his troops in 1781 to American and French forces at the Siege of Yorktown, which basically ended the American Revolution. But that did not break his spirit or his reputation. When the French allied with the Americans in early 1778, King George III had to spread out his forces for a more global war and move to defend the homeland. With an increasing shortage of troops in North America, Clinton abandoned Philadelphia and returned to New York. The British army was attacked by Washington at Monmouth Court House as they marched north. Cornwallis led the counterattack and temporarily drove back the Americans. However, the battle ended in a draw with the British troops leaving the field. | C
4: Is For Declaration of Independence, | Congress asked Thomas Jefferson and others to write a declaration of independence. They needed a document to declare why the colonies had to become independent of Britain. In this document, Jefferson wrote what many Americans believed about their rights. Jefferson wrote that people have the right to live, the right to be free, and the right to seek happiness. The Declaration explains why the colonies should break away from Britain. It says that people have rights that cannot be taken away, lists the complaints against the king, and argues that the colonies have to be free to protect the colonists’ rights. At the bottom of the document, the delegates signed their names. Jefferson wrote that if a government does not protect the rights of citizens, people have the right to form a new government. This idea was not new. Jefferson used ideas that John Locke and other English thinkers had written about. Jefferson listed many ways that Britain had not served the colonists. He wrote, for example, that King George had tried to take away rights and force taxes on the colonies. Jefferson showed that the colonists had a right to separate from the king and have their own government. The Declaration of Independence was approved on July 4, 1776. The Declaration is still important because it says the American people believe in equal rights for all. Today we know that the words “all men are created equal” include everyone: women, men, children, and every race, group, and ability. But in 1776, peoples ideas were different. Only white men who owned property had the right to vote. Laws that recognized equal rights of other groups were passed later. | D
5: Is For Ethan Allen, | Ethan Allen Was a farmer, a businessman, a land speculator, a philosopher, writer, and American Revolutionary War Patriot, and most of all, a hero. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War along with Benedict Arnold. Ethan Allen had a frontier upbringing but also received an education that included some philosophical teachings. Legal setbacks led to the formation of the Green Mountain Boys, who Allen led in a “campaign of intimidation” and property destruction to drive New York settlers from the Grants. When the American Revolutionary War broke out, Allen and the Boys seized the initiative and captured Fort Ticonderoga in May 1775. In September 1775 Allen led a failed attempt on Montreal that resulted in his capture by British authorities. He was kept in New York City, and finally released in a prisoner exchange in 1778. | E
6: Is For French And Indian War, | The Seven Years’ War (called the French and Indian War in the colonies) lasted from 1756 to 1763, forming a chapter in the imperial struggle between Britain and France called the Second Hundred Years’ War. In the early 1750s, Frances expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought it into conflict with the claims of the British colonies, especially Virginia. In 1755, Governor Shirley, fearing that the French settlers in Nova Scotia (Acadia) would side with France in any military confrontation, expelled hundreds of them to other British colonies. Many of the exiles suffered cruelly. Throughout this period, the British military effort was hampered by lack of interest at home, rivalries among the American colonies, and Frances greater success in winning the support of the Indians. In 1756 the British formally declared war (marking the official beginning of the Seven Years’ War), but their new commander in America, Lord Loudoun, faced the same problems as his predecessors and met with little success against the French and their Indian allies. | F
7: Is For Thomas Gage, | G | Gage’s military career in North America began in 1754, when he sailed with his regiment to serve in the last French and Indian War. He participated in Gen. Edward Braddock’s disastrous campaign in western Pennsylvania and in the successful operation against Quebec. He was thereupon made governor of Montreal and promoted to major general. In 1763 Gage was appointed commander in chief of all British forces in North America—the most As the main permanent adviser to the mother country in that period, he sent critical and unsympathetic reports that did much to harden the attitude of successive ministries toward the colonies. When resistance turned violent at the Boston Tea Party, Gage was instrumental in shaping Parliament’s retaliatory Intolerable Acts, by which the port of Boston was closed until the destroyed tea should be paid for. He was largely responsible for inclusion of the inflammatory provision for quartering of soldiers in private homes and of the Massachusetts Government Act, by which colonial democratic institutions were superseded by a British military government. This unfortunate maneuver signaled the start of the American Revolution; after the equally disastrous Battle of Bunker Hill in June, Gage was succeeded by Gen. Sir William Howe. He soon returned to England and was commissioned a full general in 1782.
8: Is For William Howe, | William Howe was the illegitimate uncle of King George the III. He was a commander and later a general for the English Army who fought against and had several victories against George Washington during the American Revolution. William Howe served nearly twenty years commanding British troops in North America. Although he had many victories in the American Revolution against George Washington and the rebels, he was never able to crush the entire rebellion. When he returned to England, he served as the governor of Plymouth, and although he was beloved by his men, he was seen as a failure by England for his inability to follow up on his successes. | H
9: Is For Independence Hall, | The Independence hall is located in Philadelphia, and is where the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted. The Independence Hall was built in 1753, originally as a principal meeting place of the second continental congress. In 1952, a bell was made, and placed at the top of the Independence hall, made by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. It was unfortunately cracked the first time it was rung, because the metals were not cured properly. The liberty bell is still here today. | I
10: Is For Thomas Jefferson, | Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence and the third U.S. president, was a leading figure in Americas early development. During the American Revolutionary War, Jefferson served in the Virginia legislature and the Continental Congress and was governor of Virginia. He later served as U.S. minister to France and U.S. secretary of state, and was vice president under John Adams (1735-1826). Jefferson, who thought the national government should have a limited role in citizens’ lives, was elected president in 1800. During his two terms in office (1801-1809), the U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory and Lewis and Clark explored the vast new acquisition. Although Jefferson promoted individual liberty, he was also a slave owner. After leaving office, he retired to his Virginia plantation, Monticello, and helped found the University of Virginia. | J | K
11: Is For King George The III, | King George III was born in London on June 4. He was the longest reigning of the male British monarchs. George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland and presided over the loss of the American colonies. Although never a monarch, George III was always a powerful force in politics. He was a strong supporter of the war against America, and he viewed the concession of independence in 1783 with such detestation that he considered abdicating his throne. At the same time he fought a bitter personal feud with the Whig leader Charles James Fox, and his personal intervention brought the fall of the Fox-North ministry in 1783. He then took a political gamble by placing the government in the hands of William Pitt, thereby restoring stability for the rest of the century. After 1801 George III was increasingly incapacitated by an illness, sometimes identified as porphyry, that caused blindness and senility. . George III was bitterly criticized by Whig historians of his own and later days. He learned quickly, however, and developed into a shrewd and sensible statesman, although one of conservative views. The best loved of the rulers of the House of Hanover, he enjoyed a personal reputation that stood his house in good stead during the disastrous reign of his son George. George III died at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820. | K
12: Is For Marquis De Lafayette, | Marquis de Lafayette was a French officer in the royal army of France. Lafayette was sympathetic to the American rebel cause, and left France against the kings will, to aid the colonial army. He was able to persuade other French officers to come volunteer and serve in the Colonial army under George Washington for no pay. Through his actions he was eventually awarded the rank of Major general and served directly under George Washington at Valley Forge. Even though he was much younger he had a great friendship with George Washington. Lafayette eventually returned to France to serve again in the royal army and was instrumental in securing France as allies for the colonists. This alliance was the difference and ultimately ended the British campaign. | L | M
13: Is For "Molly Pitcher," | Why do they call her “Molly pitcher” if her real name is Mary Ludwig Hays? Molly Pitcher was born October 13, 1754, near Trenton, New Jersey. During the American Revolutionary War's Battle of Monmouth, she carried pitchers of water to soldiers, thereby earning her nickname, “Molly Pitcher.” And after her husband collapsed during the battle, she took over the operation of his cannon. Then a cannon passed from the enemy and passed right between her legs, only damaging her dress. With her actions on that day, Molly Pitcher became one of the most popular and enduring symbols of the women who contributed to the American Revolution.
14: Is For Native Americans, | N | O | In the late 1770's the Mohawks fought along the side British Loyalists carrying out quick raids against American settlers living on farms in New York's frontier. The British were trying to stop supplies of food and horses from reaching General Washington and the American Army. There were many massacres in which farms were raided and destroyed by the Loyalists and their Native American allies. In 1779, General Washington sent an army of 4,000 soldiers, led by Generals Sullivan and Clinton to western New York to stop the raids on the frontier and punish the Iroquois for supporting the British during the Revolutionary War. They marched across the state, burning villages, corn fields, orchards and granaries, and destroying anything and everything that belonged to the Iroquois. Many Iroquois escaped certain death by leaving their villages and hiding in the woods. Joseph Brant and his followers escaped to Canada. This destruction of the Iroquois became known as the Sullivan Campaign. It did not matter to the soldiers which side the Iroquois had fought on, or if they were friendly or hostile. The strength of the Iroquois Confederacy was doomed. The Sullivan Campaign was clearing out all of the Iroquois to make way for American settlers after the Revolutionary War.
15: Is For English Oppression, | Parliament was unfairly controlled by the wealthy individuals in Great Britain who imposed strict laws, and heavy taxes on the colonists. This "oppression" or unjust exercise of power from the leaders of British Parliament was cruel and unfair to the poor and less powerful colonists. An example of the oppression would be that the colonials were not allowed to protest their discontent of these laws and at such a protest British troops fired on a crowd of colonial protesters which lead to the 1770 Boston Massacre. With this trial, there was more injustice when these British soldiers were acquitted for these shootings when they were defended by the future president John Adams. | O
16: Is For Parliament, | P | This word originates from the French word Parlement, which means to speak. It came to be used when a group of people met together to discuss or 'talk about' matters of state. Parliament of Great Britain was ruled by King George III during the Revolution. Parliament was represented by only wealthy class citizens and not open to vote from the poor. Parliament took actions against the colonies and refused them seats in the government. Laws were passed in parliament that regulated heavy taxes on trade and they would not address colonists complaints that these laws were unfair. The position of colonists served as a basis for revolution and from this was born The Declaration of Independence.
17: Is For Quartering Act, | Q | The Quartering Acts were two British Laws, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain 1765 and 1774, that were designed to force local colonial governments to provide provisions and housing to British soldiers stationed in the 13 Colonies of America. In 1765, Parliament passed a quartering act that stated “ All British soldiers in America would be housed in Barracks, public houses, inns, or stables, and uninhabited houses, or barns.” As tensions grew worse, in late 1773, and early 1774, the quartering act was added on to, with the quartering act of 1774. This act passed on June 2, 1774, and required colonists to house troops, not only as previously required, but also in private homes. The quartering act was mostly about Intolerable acts that led to dissent in the American Colonies.
18: Is For Paul Revere, | R | Paul Revere was a patriot in the American revolution, who is most famous for alerting the colonials that the British troops were approaching to attack for the Battle of Lexington and Concord. Being in a silversmith trade, by working with iron, he learned to forge and cast bronze bells and lanterns. In the days before the attack of the British army, in 1775, Revere, instructed the colonists how he would alert the town when the British army was approaching. He instructed that one lantern would signal that the army approached by land, while two lanterns would signal the route was by water. Revere and two others were captured, but let free when it triggered his alarm system of town bell ringing rapidly meaning that the army was surrounded. " And they are all dead men!" He was then used in the war as a commissioned major of infantry to fashion gun powder, weapons, and machines of war.
19: Is For Stamp Act , | S | The Stamp Act of 1765 was the first internal tax levied directly on American colonists by the British government. The act, which imposed a tax on all paper documents in the colonies, came at a time when the British Empire was deep in debt from the Seven Years’ War and looking to its North American colonies as a revenue source. Arguing that only their own representative assemblies could tax them, the colonists insisted that the act was unconstitutional, and they resorted to mob violence to intimidate stamp collectors into resigning. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act in 1766, but issued a Declaratory Act at the same time to reaffirm its authority to pass any colonial legislation it saw fit. The issues of taxation and representation raised by the Stamp Act strained relations with the colonies to the point that, 10 years later, the colonists rose in armed rebellion against the British.
20: Is For Fort Ticonderoga, | Located on Lake Champlain in northeastern New York, Fort Ticonderoga served as a key point of access to both Canada and the Hudson River Valley during the French and Indian War. On May 10, 1775, Benedict Arnold of Massachusetts joined Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys of Vermont in an attack on the fort, surprising and capturing the sleeping British garrison. Although it was a small-scale conflict, the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga was the first American victory of the Revolutionary War, and would give the Continental Army much-needed artillery to be used in future battles.In 1755, French settlers in North America began building a military fortification, Fort Carillon, on the western shore of Lake Champlain. Because of its location, which offered access to both Canada and the Hudson River Valley, the fort saw more fighting during the French and Indian War than any other post. In July 1758, British forces unsuccessfully attacked the fort, suffering heavy casualties. Under the command of General Jeffrey Amherst, the British returned the following year and were able to defeat the French, who destroyed much of Fort Carillon and withdrew to Canada. | T
21: Is For Samuel Adams, | U | Samuel Adams, helped organize the resistance in Boston to Britain's stamp act of 1765. Adams also served as a legislature of Massachusetts, from 1765, through 1764. Among his accomplishments, he founded Bostons committee of correspondence, which proved to be a powerful tool for Americas Communication, and coordination during the Revolutionary War. Following his run as the state legislature, Adams served as a delegate to the Continental Congress, until 1781. As a delegate, he urged a final break from Britain, and signed the Declaration of Independence, alongside his cousin, John Adams. Samuel Adams soon became Democratic-Republicans when formal American political parties were created in the late 1790s. Adams final political role was serving as Massachusetts' governor, from 1794 through 1797. He died on October 2, 1803 in his hometown of Boston.
22: Is For Vally Forge, | What really happened at Valley Forge? There was no “REAL” Battle at Valley Forge, but yet, it was the turning point of the Revolutionary War. The weather was terrible, and there was NO food. On June 19, 1778, exactly six months after they Americans arrived, a new army anxious to fight the British streamed out of Valley Forge toward New Jersey. They had been transformed from Rebel into a Mature Army. The fighting between the British and the Americans, lasted almost a year. (Eleven months and eight days, to be exact.) Then finally the British fled from the war. | V | W
23: Is For Weapons, | A Great variety of weapons were used throughout the American Revolution. While some were well-established weapons from previous wars, others were more experimental in nature and did not gain prominence until much later in history. Some of the weapons were, muskets, cannons, and swords. Used mostly by officers, Revolutionary War swords were often ornamental in nature and decorated with precious materials. General George Washington considered his sword to be part of the uniform and many Washington paintings from the Revolutionary War era feature him holding an unsheathed sword. Today, antique swords are among the most popular American Revolution weapons with collectors. The most commonly used firearm during the Revolutionary War was the muzzle-loaded musket. The musket was the primary weapon for thousands of British and Continental Army soldiers. Revolutionary War muskets were commonly equipped with bayonets, which were useful against cavalry and in close combat. America's ability to arm its force with flintlock muskets as they mobilized was a critical challenge early in the war. And last but not least,The cannon was a highly effective weapon throughout the Revolutionary War and was key to the American victory. Though it took as many as 14 soldiers to operate, a cannon could fire projectile for hundreds of yards and hit dozens of enemy soldiers in a single shot.
24: Is For Lexington And Concord, | X | The Battles of Lexington and Concord, fought on April 19, 1775, kicked off the American Revolutionary War . Tensions had been building for many years between residents of the 13 American colonies and the British authorities, particularly in Massachusetts. On the night of April 18, 1775, hundreds of British troops marched from Boston to nearby Concord in order to seize an arms cache. Paul Revere and other riders sounded the alarm, and colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the Redcoat column. A confrontation on the Lexington town green started off the fighting.and after many more battles in 1783 the colonists formally won their independence.Starting in 1764, Great Britain enacted a series of measures aimed at raising revenue from its 13 American colonies. Many of those measures, including the Sugar Act, Stamp Act and Townshend Acts, generated fierce resentment among the colonists, who protested against “taxation without representation.” Boston, the site of the 1770 Boston Massacre and the 1773 Boston Tea Party, was one of the main points of resistance. King George III of Britain ramped up the military presence there, and in June 1774 he shut down the city’s harbor until colonists paid for tea dumped overboard the previous year. Soon after, the British Parliament declared that Massachusetts was in open rebellion.At dawn on April 19, some 700 British troops arrived in Lexington and came upon 77 militiamen gathered on the town green. The heavily outnumbered militiamen had just been ordered by their commander to disperse when a shot rang out. To this day, no one knows which side fired first. Several British volleys were subsequently unleashed before order could be restored. When the smoke cleared, eight militiamen lay dead and nine were wounded, while only one Redcoat was injured.
25: Is For Battle Of Yorktown, | Y | On this day in 1781, General George Washington, commanding a force of 17,000 French and Continental troops, begins the siege known as the Battle of Yorktown against British General Lord Charles Cornwallis and a contingent of 9,000 British troops at Yorktown,Virginia, in the most important battle of the Revolutionary War. Earlier, in a stroke of luck for the Patriots, the French fleet commanded by Francois, Count de Grasse, departed St. Domingue (the then-French colony that is now Haiti) for the Chesapeake Bay, just as Cornwallis chose Yorktown, at the mouth of the Chesapeake, as his base. Washington realized that it was time to act. He ordered Marquis de Lafayette and an American army of 5,000 troops to block Cornwallis' escape from Yorktown by land while the French naval fleet blocked the British escape by sea. By September 28, Washington had completely encircled Cornwallis and Yorktown with the combined forces of Continental and French troops. After three weeks of non-stop bombardment, both day and night, from cannon and artillery, Cornwallis surrendered to Washington in the field at Yorktown on October 17, 1781, effectively ending the War for Independence. Pleading illness, Cornwallis did not attend the formal surrender ceremony, held on October 19. Instead, his second in command, General Charles O'Hara, carried Cornwallis' sword to the American and French commanders. Although the war persisted on the high seas and in other theaters, the Patriot victory at Yorktown ended fighting in the American colonies. Peace negotiations began in 1782, and on September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed, formally recognizing the United States as a free and independent nation after eight years of war.
26: Is For Zealous, | Zealous is a passion for winning, for giving their own lives for our country. Eager to fight everyday, until they win. The word zealous describes the soldiers, and their passion to fight. When the soldiers went up against the other teams, they had to be zealous to fight. The Americans decided if they won, their country didn't have to pay for tax. They didn't have to listen to the British. They didn't want to be under the British rules. Our country is a great country because of the people who risk their own lives, for other people. The American revolution was all about, being Zealous. | Z
27: Credits | http://www.history.com/topics/french-and-indian-war http://www.History.com/topics/Molly-pitcher-Mary-Ludwig-Hays http://www.Life-story-Thomas-Jefferson/story http://www.Zealous-soldiers_fight-revolutionary.com http://www.FortTiconderoga-revolutionarywar http://Valleyforge-vallyof-fighting Http://Google-Wikipedia.com