BC: Work Cited http://www.petmd.com I used Pet MD for every chapter in this book.
FC: Common Diseases in Dogs By Andrew
1: Table of Content Chapter 1: The general wellbeing of a dog. Page 2 Chapter 2: Rabies. Page 3 Chapter 3: Distemper. Page 5 Chapter 4: Parvoviral Enteritis. Page 7 Chapter 5: Osteosarcoma. Page 9 Chapter 6: Heartworms. Page 10 Chapter 7: Diabeter Mellitus. Page 13 Chapter 8: Degenerative Joint Disease. Page 17 Chapter 9: Legg-Calvé-Perthes. Page 20 Chapter 10: Pictures. Page 22
2: Chapter One The General Well-being of a Dog Dogs are animals that have been domesticated and live with humans as pats. There are many different species of dogs. Like the giant Rottweiler, or little dogs such as the Yorkshire terrier. No matter the size or breed of any dog, they all fall susceptible to disease. There many that in the world. Some of the most common are rabies, Distemper, and Parvovirus Enteritis while others such as bone cancer are rarer.
3: Chapter 2 Rabies Rabies is a severe, and often fatal, viral polio encephalitis that specifically affects the gray matter of the dog's brain and its central nervous system. The most common way for rabies to be transferred to a dog is through the bite of a carrier. A carries may be an animal such as a fox, bat or raccoon. As soon as the virus is enters the body, it replicates in the cells of the muscles, and then spreads to the closest nerve fibers, including all peripheral, sensory and motor nerves, traveling from there to the CNS via fluid within the nerves.
4: There are two types of rabies, paralytic and furious. Furious rabies is characterized by extreme behavioral changes, including overt aggression and attack behavior while paralytic rabies, is characterized by weakness and loss of coordination, followed by paralysis. Some symptoms of rabies are pica, fever, seizures, paralysis, excessive excitability, foaming of the mouth and many more. The only treatment for dogs that have rabies is to isolate them in a cage for ten days. If the dog is unvaccinated then the dog will die. All areas that the dog touched will have to be cleaned
5: Chapter 3 Distemper Distemper is a viral disease that mostly affects dogs. This disease is a cousin to the measles virus that affects humans. Young, unvaccinated puppies and non-immunized older dogs tend to be more susceptible to the disease. The major symptoms of Distemper include high fever, reddened eyes, and a watery discharge from the nose and eyes. Many infected dogs will become very lethargic and develop anorexia. The dog may also start having its, seizures, paralysis, and attacks of hysteria.
6: Distemper is also called the “hard pad disease” because certain strains of the virus can cause an abnormal enlargement or thickening of the pads of an animal's feet. Distemper is diagnosed with biochemical tests and urine tests. A serology test may identify positive antibodies. Haired skin, nasal mucous, and the footpad epithelium may also be tested for antibodies. There is no known cure for Distemper but there is a vaccine to stop the infection from ever starting.
7: Chapter 4 Parvovirus Enteritis Parvovirus Enteritis, most commonly known as parvo, is a highly contagious viral illness that affects dogs. There are two different forms of this disease. The intestinal form, which is the more common form, is characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and lack of appetite. The lesser known form is the cardiac form, which attacks the heart muscles of very young puppies, often leading to death. Most of the cases seen are from puppies six weeks to six months.
8: The major symptoms associated with the intestinal form of parvo are severe, bloody diarrhea, lethargy, anorexia, fever, vomiting, and severe weight loss. The intestinal form of parvo affects the body's ability to absorb nutrients, and an affected animal will quickly become dehydrated and weak from lack of protein and fluid absorption. The wet tissue of the mouth and eyes may become noticeably red and the heart may beat too rapidly. There is no real cure for this disease yet but treatment is to cure all of the symptoms and preventing secondary bacterial infections. The best way to avoid ever getting it is to have puppies vaccinated at about six to twelve weeks.
9: Chapter 5 Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a cancerous tumor that is found in the bones of dogs. It can affect any species of dogs but most effects larger breeds. The symptoms of osteosarcoma are swelling, lameness, and joint or bone pain. Many dogs will even show signs of tiredness or anorexia. Dogs will also have a massive growth on their body or a painful inflammation around the sight of the tumor. There are only two treatments for osteosarcoma. The first is having chemotherapy. The other is the amputation of the limb that contains the tumor. There is currently no cure for this disease.
10: Chapter 6 Heartworm Heartworm is a disease that both affects cats and dogs. Heartworms are a tiny bug like creature that looks for a host. The host animal is called the source. They start out in the blood that mosquito sucks from a animal. The heartworm then goes through a transformation into an adult. After growing up, the heartworm can move to the saliva gland so that when the mosquito bites another animal, the heartworm is transferred into the blood.
11: At first there are no signs that heartworms are affecting your dog. Even blood test will not show if anything wrong with the dog. All the change happens within the dog. When the heartworm ages, it will cause damage to the arteries and make them inflamed. The bug moves through the blood vessels faster than the rate at which the body id trying to heal itself. Now the affects can be seen on a x-ray. A side affect will be clotting and aneurysms and sometimes blockage of the blood vessels. With the vessels blocked the dog will start to cough, shortness of breath and nosebleeds. After a while vessels and surrounding lung tissue are damaged and create heart failure.
12: There are four stages of heartworms. The first is when the dog is completely healthy and shows signs of minimal presence of heartworms. The second stage is when the dogs start coughing and have trouble breathing with a little kidney and/or liver damage. The third stage the dog has weight loss, more coughing, difficulty breathing. The x-rays will show more signs of the bugs. The forth and last stage the dog has collapsed from shock and all symptoms already mentioned are intensified. The dog will most likely die unless they have a surgical jugular removal of some worms. The prevention of heartworms is easy. The most affective is a pill once a month that kills the worms.
13: Chapter 7 Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus is a diseased state by which the body suffers from either an absolute shortage of insulin (Type I), or from an incorrect response from the cells to the insulin that is being produced, a condition termed insulin resistance (Type 2). It will prevent the muscles and organs from turning glucose to energy. This will cause hyperglycemia, when there is an excessive amount of glucose in the blood. Diabetes is a disease of the carbohydrates, proteins and the fat metabolism caused by a lack of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas
14: One of the signs that a dog might have Diabetes is if the dog is hungry all the time. This is because glucose levels in the brain are too low for the dog to realize that the dog is eating. Because insulin is not giving the muscles and organs the signal to change glucose to energy, the excess glucose in the blood will be carried out through urine instead of being used for energy, which will cause the dog to have a lack of energy. The dog will also have an increased thirst and an increase in urine. With the increase in urination, the liver and kidneys take damage as well as the eyes.
15: Some early signs of diabetes are excessive urination and thirst, hunger and weight loss. A few later signs are a loss of appetite, depression, lethargy and vomiting. The development of Ketoacidosis may happen. Ketoacidosis is the metabolic acidosis caused by the breakdown of fat and proteins in the liver because of insulin deficiency. Some symptoms are enlarged liver, cataracts, bladder or kidney infection, and obesity. There are a few causes of diabetes. Genetic predisposition is one. If a dog has diabetes then most likely their family does too. Immune-system disorders and viral diseases can also lead to the cause of this disease.
16: The treatment of diabetes is easy. Your veterinarian will prescribe a course of treatment that will include daily exercise in your dog's schedule. Lowering insulin demands and balancing your dog's food and liquid cravings to healthy levels will be the first priority. Soft and moist foods will have to be avoided because they cause rapid accumulation of glucose in the body. Also your dog will have to take insulin shots daily. The amount given will vary from each dog. A smaller dog may need more while a larger dog will need less.
17: Chapter 8 Degenerative Joint Disease Degenerative Joint Disease, also commonly known as osteoarthritis or DJD, is the progressive and permanent long-term deterioration of the cartilage surrounding the joints. Arthritis is the medical term for inflammation of the joints. Osteoarthritis is a form of chronic joint inflammation caused by deterioration of joint cartilage. Symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary. Some signs are decreased level of activity, occasional lameness, and a stiff gait that worsens with exercise.
18: There is no known cause for primary osteoarthritis. However, there are a wide variety of causes for secondary osteoarthritis, such as trauma, abnormal wear on joints and cartilage, or a congenital defect present at birth such as an improperly formed hip. Obesity is another cause of osteoarthritis. It causes stress on the joints. Dogs with disorders such as diabetes, prolonged steroid treatment, and hyper laxity (an excessive looseness of the joints) may also be at higher risk for osteoarthritis.
19: Medical treatment can control signs of osteoarthritis but there is no known cure. Surgery may help alleviate some symptoms. This can include reconstructive surgeries, joint removal or replacement, and the surgical removal of aggravating causes, such as bone or cartilage fragments, in a joint. Physical therapy can help increase joint motion and be very beneficial. The pain from osteoarthritis can be managed by cold and heat therapy. Long-term medication may also be helpful in reducing joint swelling and pain. Anti-inflammatory drugs are recommenced.
20: Chapter 9 Legg-Calvé-Perthes Legg-Calvé-Perthes is a disease that affects many miniature, toy, and small-breed dogs, such as a miniature schnauzer. Most dogs that are affected are between five and eight months old. This disease involves spontaneous degeneration of the head on the femur bone and causes osteoarthritis. Symptoms include lameness, carrying of affected limbs, pain when moving hip joint and wasting of thigh muscles on affected limbs. There is no known cause of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease but some think that it has to do with blood supply issues to the head of the femur bone.
21: Diagnosis of this disease is done by a physical examination. The veterinarian will focus mostly on the affected areas. Lab work is not required to diagnosis this disease. X-rays of the affected area will be taken, which should identify any changes in the femoral bone and joint. Treatment for Legg-Calvé-Perthes is to get rest and some mild pain killers. Cold packing is used to help the dog's lameness followed by some surgeries. Much exercise and physical therapy is needed afterwards.
22: Top Right: Rabies Bottom Left: Hard paw Caused by distemper Mid left: Puppy with parvo peeing blood Bottom Right: Tumor on the knee bone
23: Top Right: A dogs heart filled with heartworms Mid left: A dog given incline shots for its diabetes Bottom Right: A diagram of a bone with osteoarthritis Bottom Left: A Yorkshire terrier with Legg Perthes