BC: Citations | Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1960. Print.
FC: To Kill A Mockingbird MixBook By:Emily Montgomery To Kill a Mockingbird written by: Harper Lee
1: Table of Contents | Setting- pg 2-4 History of Scottsboro Trials and Emmett Till- pg 5-6 Real World Events- pg 7 Point of View- pg 8-15 Conflict- pg 16-17 Characters- pg 18-19 Symbols- pg 20-21 Themes- pg 22-24 Literary Criticism- pg 25-31 Back Cover- pg 32
2: Setting | "There was no hurry, for there was no where to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb"(Lee 6). From this quote you know that the people of Maycomb are content with what they have and there's not much to do in Maycomb even if there was money to do things.
3: "Somehow it was hotter then; a black dog suffered on a summer's day; bony mules hitched to Hoover carts flicked flies in the sweltering shade of the live oaks on the square"(Lee 6). From this quote you know that in the South there is extreme heat and humidity. Most people and animals were uncomfortable in the summer. | "Maycomb was an old town, but it was tired old town when I first knew it"(Lee 6). From this quote you know instantly that this town is very small and there's not much going on. We also know that everybody knows everybody's business.
4: Setting That Impacts the Literature. | Understanding the context of the setting helps us understand the characters because knowing that it's a little old town shows that everyone knows everybody. They know their business and what they are doing at all times. It also shows that they have nothing else to do, but nose around into people's lives.
5: Back Story to the Scottsboro Boys Trials | The Scottsboro Boys trials were a several trails containing two prostitutes that were crossing the line and got caught. To avoid getting in trouble they blamed the nine black boys also riding the train and accused them of gang raping them. During this time they went through several trials and were still founded guilty even though the girls admitted to lying.
6: Emmett Till | Emmett Till was a young fourteen year old black boy that was dragged from his house at night and beaten and murdered for flirting with a white girl. The girl's husband was offended and appalled that he would do this and rounded up his friends and murdered him. This incident was a very gruesome and very bloody.
7: 1. In the real world 9 black boys were being accused of raping two white women. 2. In the real world Emmett Till was beaten to death at night for flirting with a white girl. 3. In the real world the Scottsboro boys went to several trials to try and get acquitted. 4. In the real world two white girls said that they were lying and they actually didn't get raped, but the boys were still founded guilty. | 1. In TKaM Tom Robinson was accused of raping Mayella Ewell who was a poor white girl. 2. In TKaM Cunningham led a mob at night to kill Tom Robinson who was in jail. 3. In TKaM Atticus and Tom tried to appeal his case and they were going to try and get him acquitted. 4. In TKaM there was so much evidence saying that Tom didn't rape Mayella, but he was still founded guilty. | Real World Events Compared to To Kill A Mockingbird events
8: Harper Lee chose to tell this story form the perspective of a young girl because it's a different than most stories. Lee also wanted to show the innocence of the book even though it's written about very serious content. She also shows that even a child cares about the well being of people even though she is still too young to understand. Having Scout tell the story also shows an unbiased point of view to the story. | Point of View | In To Kill a Mockingbird the story is told in first person point of view. The story is told from the perspective of a six year old girl named Scout and ends with her being eight. She is a tomboy girl living in the South. | "I said if he wanted to take a broad view of the thing, it really began with Andrew Jackson"(Lee 3).
9: I caught Scout backstage after the pageant. Even when she was hidden beneath her ham costume, I could still feel the shame coming off of her. I tried to cheer her up, said she did alright, all she did was come in a little late, that was all. She still insisted that we wait until the crowd had passed before we could leave and I agreed. Scout just needed a little time to calm down. I eyed her costume. It sure looked uncomfortable. “You wanta take it off, Scout?” I asked. “Naw, I’ll just keep it on.” Scout said. She was still embarrassed. “You all want a ride home?” a man asked. I think he was from the countryside, someone I’ve seen around town a few times and had even said hi too, but I did not know his name. | Jem's Point of View
10: “No sir, thank you.” I refused politely. “It’s just a little walk.” The man shrugged. “Be careful of haints,” he said. The man smiled. “Better still, tell the haints to be careful of Scout.” I turned back to Scout. “There aren’t many folks left now. Let’s go.” We went through the auditorium to the hallway, then down the steps. It was still black dark. The remaining cars were parked on the other side of the building, and their headlights were little help. “If some of ‘em were goin’ in our direction we could see better,” I said. “Here Scout, let me hold onto you-hock. You might lose your balance.” “I can see all right.” Scout protested. “Yeah, but you might lose your balance.” I grabbed the end of the hand on Scout’s head. “You got me?” “Uh huh.” We began crossing the black schoolyard, straining to see our feet. “Jem,” I heard Scout say. “I forgot my shoes, they’re back behind the stage.” “Well let’s go get ‘em.” But as we turned around the auditorium lights went off. “You can get’em tomorrow.”” As I turned Scout homeward, she began protesting. “But tomorrow’s Sunday.” “You can get the Janitor to let you in,” a noise reached my ears. “Scout?”
11: “Hm?” “Nothing.” No need to worry her about nothing. Still, I strained my ears to try and hear moreshuffling. I thought I heard shuffling. I pressed my fingers into the top of Scout’s costume and felt her shake her head. “Jem, you don’t hafta-“ “Hush a minute, Scout.” I said, pinching her. There was that noise again. We continued to walk along silently. “Minute’s up,” Scout said, turning to look at me. “Whatcha thinking about?” “Thought I heard something. Stop a minute.” We did. Nothing. The shuffling had stopped. “Hear anything?” I asked Scout, just in case I was missing something. “No.” Scout said. I sighed and we started walking again. There! There was that noise. I made Scout stop again. “Jem, are you tryin’ to scarSe me?” cout asked angrily. “You know I’m too old-“ “Be quiet.” I hushed her. She did and we listened. I heard nothing but the light wind that brushed my arms. Finally, Scout spoke up. “Heard an old dog just then.” I said. “It’s not that.” I denied. “I hear it when we’re walking’ along, but when we stop I don’t hear it.”
12: Scout still wasn’t convinced. “You hear my costume rustlin’. Aw, it’s just Halloween got you” But when we started walking again, I heard and I knew Scout heard it. It was not her costume. “It’s just old Cecil,” I said presently, trying to convince myself it was just that. “he won’t get us again. “Let’s don’t let him think we’re hurrying.” We slowed down and Scout asked how Cecil could follow us in the dark without bumping into us. I replied that I could see her. Her fat streaks were showing as Mrs. Crenshaw had painted ‘em with some of that shiny stuff so they’d show up under the footlights. Suddenly, Scout turned around. “Cecil Jacobs is a big wet he-en!” We stopped and waited for Cecil to acknowledge the insult but all we heard was he-en bouncing off the schoolhouse wall. “I’ll get him.” I promised. “He-y!” Hay-e hay-e hay-ey bounced back at us. This wasn’t like Cecil. He should have leapt at us already. I signaled for Scout to stop again. “Scout, can you take that thing off?” I asked softly. I had an uneasy feeling about all this. “I think so, but I ain’t got anything on under it much.” She answered. “I’ve got your dress here.”
13: “I can’t get it on in the dark.” “Okay,” I relented. I didn’t like just standing here. “Never mind.” “Jem,” Scout asked me. “Are you afraid?” “No.” I denied. But I was. The uneasy feeling was growing and I needed to get Scout out of here. “Think we’re almost to the tree now. Few yards from that, an’ we’ll be to the road. We can see the street light then.” “You reckon we oughta sing, Jem?” “No. Be real quiet again, Scout.” We still walked at a slow pace so that Scout could walk without stumping her toe. The noise had not stopped either. I now knew it was the shuffling of feet and the soft swish of cotton on cotton as their pants rubbed together. Soon enough we were under the big oak tree. I stopped Scout and we listened. The shuffling did not stop with us this time. Their trousers swished softly and steadily. I peered into the darkness hoping to see him. The shuffling only stopped for a brief moment, then they were running at us. Whoever it was was grown. “Run, Scout! Run! Run!” I screamed. Too late. Scout took one step before whoever it was pulled her back. “Jem, Jem, help me, Jem!”
14: Scout fell to the ground and I ran at the man. It was still too dark for me to see anything but I tried my best to get the man away from Scout. I kicked at him and he tackled me and we both ended up on the ground. I felt cold metal at my skin and knew they had a knife. I rolled away and into Scout, pulling her up with and tried to get her running. It was useless as Scout was too entangled with her costume to get very far. We were nearly to the road when the man grabbed me and yanked me back onto the ground. I tried my best to fight him off but he was standing and I was on the ground, rolling around. He got his foot on top my arm and stepped, hard. There was a crunching sound and I screamed. The last thing I saw, as the man’s foot came rushing at my face, was Scout’s ham costume come running at us.
16: 1. The conflict between Aunt Alexandra and Scout is a Man vs. Man conflict and is external. Scout was always fighting her aunt on dressing and acting like a "true lady". 2. The conflict that addressed Tom Robinson being accused of rape even though he was not guilty is a Man vs. Society conflict and is external. He was battling everyone in society because of his race. 3.The conflict of Scout questing herself if she should be a "true lady" is a Man vs. Self conflict and is internal. | Conflict
17: Conflicts explained on how they changed the characters | 1. At the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird Aunt Alexandra was always arguing with Atticus and Scout about how Scout should act and how she should dress but at the end of the story she started understanding what Atticus was going through and kinda gave Scout a break. She even dressed Scout in overalls. 2. At the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird the society was dead set against Tom Robinson and knew one hundred percent that he raped Mayella, but at the end people of Maycomb knew that he didn't rape her and believed him innocent. 3.At the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird Scout hated how everybody said she wasn't a proper lady and she always dressed in overalls, but at the end she started understanding more and was even thinking on how a lady should really act.
18: Jem is a dynamic character in TKaM because at the beginning he starts off as a young boy that loves hanging out with Scout but towards the end he changes by maturing quite a lot and believes that he's so much smarter than Scout and thinks he's way smarter. | Scout is a dynamic character because she starts off as a young tomboy girl from the South who doesn't want to be a lady, but towards the end she starts maturing and starts to understand and think what it means to be a true lady. | Dynamic Characters
19: Static Characters | Atticus is one of the static characters that are in TKaM. He is a single father that is a lawyer and is defending a black man. He doesn't change throughout the story in his beliefs in the law and on how to raise his children even though he had several opinions thrust upon him. | Dill is another one of the static characters that appear in TKaM. He is a young boy that moves to Maycomb in the summer and is befriended by Jem and Scout. He stays the same throughout the story by being friends and not understanding the prejudice people in the South. He also doesn't understand most of the trial.
20: How Mockingbird is Symbolic | In To Kill a Mockingbird the mockingbird symbolizes the innocence that is in this book and which has been corrupted by evil and society. The title is significant because it basically foreshadows what's going to happen and it also shows that there is innocence in this piece of literature. It is also going to show us the journey on how innocence is corrupted.
21: Mockingbirds | Tom Robinson symbolizes a mockingbird because he is innocent throughout his whole trial. All he tried to do was live and peace and help out Mayella because he felt sorry for her. | Scout Finch symbolizes a mockingbird because she is a young innocent girl that tries and understand things throughout this trial. She doesn't harm anyone or anything through this period of her life. | Boo Radley symbolizes a mockingbird because he doesn't harm anyone and he minds his own business. He does not like to be center of attention and he has done no wrong. He is very innocent.
22: In the book "To Kill a Mockingbird" Harper Lee used the theme of don't judge a person until you have jumped into their skin and have lived their life. For example Lee states "'Atticus, he was real nice'......His hands were under my chin, pulling up the cover, tucking it around me. 'Most people are, Scout, when you finally see them'"(Lee 376). Atticus was saying that most people are nice when you finally get to know them. In the real world this is trying to tell us that don't assume or judge things of people until you have actually met them. | Themes
23: In To Kill a Mockingbird Harper Lee used the theme of bravery is something to be learned through experience and not inherited. Atticus stated "'I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand'.....'She was the bravest person I ever knew'"(Lee 149). Atticus was trying to say to his kids that bravery is learned and is not what most people think it is. Bravery is doing the unthinkable. To the society it's saying that people need to learn to be "BRAVE". | Themes
24: In To Kill A Mockingbird, Harper Lee used the theme that all men are created equal in the eyes of the law. In the court room Atticus was trying to get people to understand this. He stated "But there is one way in this country in which all men are created equal-There is one human institution that makes pauper the equal of a Rockefeller. The stupid man the equal of Einstein, and the ignorant man, the equal of any college president. That institution, gentlemen, is a court"(Lee 274). Atticus was saying all men are created equal in the eyes of the court and the law. He was also telling people of society today that all men are equal no matter what their race is. | Themes
25: Feminist School of Criticism | Feminist School of Literary is used by taking feminist principles and beliefs and analyzing literature. It tries to show how literature reinforces the narrative of male domination in regard to female bodies.
26: Level of Education: Unknown Limitations due to sex: Expected to cook and clean and not to get in the way of men; also because she is black she is suppose to be uneducated. Limitations due to class: She is a poor black woman; she can't talk very well and is not suppose to understand very well. If she was a white upper class then she would not be expected to clean or cook. If she was a white upper class man she would have a good paying job, she would be educated and respected. | Level of Education: Has no education Limitation due to sex: to be a lady and gossip with others; raises children to be proper. Limitations due to class: Uneducated, poor. Her opinion is not as worthy as richer folks. If she was a white upper class she would be more social, would be accepted by more people, and she wouldn't insult her own family. If she was a white upper class man, she would have a job, would expect different things for herself,educated, and she would focus on Jem | Calpurnia vs Aunt Alexandra
27: They analyze literature by trying to understand the work through a cultural context and history. New Historicism is when you analyze literature through interpreting history of the author and history of the critic. | New Historicism
28: Allusions in To Kill a Mockingbird | 1. In page 1, TKaM alludes to Andrew Jackson who was the leader of the Confederates in the Civil War. He was the one to help create the South on how it was in the book. 2. In page 27, TKaM alludes to the Great Crash in 1930. The Stock Market crashed and everybody lost their money. It shows how no one has any money to do anything. 3. In page 4, TKaM alludes to the Battle of Hastings which was a battle between the French and the English. It shows that they had no ancestors around the world. 4. In page 6, TKaM it alludes to the president saying there was nothing to fear than fear itself. It shows that there is nothing to do in Maycomb. 5. In page 9, TKaM alludes to Dracula who was a vampire and it helps describe Dill and helps understand him. 6.In page 9, TKaM alludes to Tarzan which was play between two species. It helps understand the relationship between the two races.
30: Psychoanalytical School of Criticism | Psychoanalytical Criticism is basically described as the unconscious, the desires, and the defenses. People analyze literature through the Id, Ego, and SuperEgo. They look at what society tells them, what they really want, and then the compromise.
31: Id, Ego, and SuperEgo | Atticus-Ego because all he wants is Tom to be free even though he's black, but realizes that it's probably not going to happen due to the racism in society. Aunt Alexandra- Super Ego because she expects Scout to act like a lady and she wants what the society wants. Jem- Id because he expects Tom to be released because he knows Tom is innocent and doesn't realize that he has society against him Dill- Id because he expects the world to act a certain way, he thinks that Tom should be released, but is surprise when he isn't. Boo Radley- Super Ego because the world decides that Boo is a creepy guy and so he acts that way. Calpurnia- Ego because she acts as the mother to the children, even when the world says she isn't fit to. Miss Maudie- Ego because she knows that the world expects yet she stays true to herself.