BC: The End
FC: Ethanol | By: Maddie Hulse and Courtney Acton :)
1: What is ethanol? | A steady burning liquid fuel produced by the fermentation of sugars in plants. | It's usually made of corn, sorghum, and other grain products.
2: How is it made? | 1. Milling: After the corn is cleaned, it goes through hammer mills that grind the corn into a fine powder. | 2. Liquefaction: It is then mixed with water and an enzyme which then passes through cookers where the starch is liquefied. Heat is added to allow liquefaction and reduce bacteria levels in the mixture. | 3. Saccharification: It cools and the enzyme gluco amylase is added to change the starch molecules to sugar, so they can be fermented.
3: 4. Fermentation: Yeast is added to ferment the sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Then it goes through many fermenters until it's fully fermented and leaves the tank. It stays in one fermenter for 48 hours. | 5. Distillation: The mash contains 10% alcohol and non-fermentable solids from corn and yeast cells. It is then pumped into a multi-column distillation system where the alcohol is removed from the solids and water. The rest of the mash is sent to the co-product processing area. | 6. Dehydration: Then it is passed through the dehydration system where the rest of the water is removed with a molecular sieve( an object with a meshed bottom). | 7. Denaturing: The ethanol we use is mixed with a gasoline-like product which makes it bad for human consumption.
5: What is the history of ethanol? | In ancient times, ethanol was called an intoxicating drink. Ethanol is mainly produced by corn fermentation in the U.S. | Ethanol that is used for fuel goes through a denaturing process which adds little amounts of gasoline to it. | In the late 1800's ethanol was used as fuel for lamps. The sale of it exceeded over 25 million gallons per year.
6: During the Civil War, government put a large tax on oil because of the request from oil companies. The ethanol companies were almost destroyed by the tax. | In the early 1900's the use of ethanol as fuel increased because the petroleum supples were low in Europe. | In 1906 the tax was lifted causing the fuel to do well. The competition from other companies caused the use of it to reduce.
7: During the Oil Crisis of the 1970's ethanol was first used as gasoline because of the oil shortages. | In 1973 the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries caused the gasoline shortages. They increased prices and blocked oil shipments to the U.S. | This caused the U.S. to focus more on the use of ethanol.
8: Are there any byproducts after ethanol is made? | Yes, there are some byproducts after ethanol is made. | Some of the byproducts are: Gluton Distiller's dried grains
9: What is used to make ethanol? | Corn Sugar cane Wheat Sorghum And other grain products
10: How efficient is it? | Although some studies have thought ethanol to be inefficient, recent studies show otherwise. | Current corn-ethanol production is far less petroleum-intensive than gasoline. | Both fuels have similar greenhouse gas emissions
11: What are it's effects on the atmosphere compared to regular gasoline? | Ethanol is an environmentally friendly fuel because it comes from plants and plant waste. | It is said that if gasoline is replaced with ethanol, it could help fight the effect of global warming.
12: How much does it cost to make? | There are two variables in the cost of ethanol. They are the cost of corn and the cost of natural gas or other sources of heat needed to make it. | In 2000, the cost of a gallon of ethanol was less than $1.19. New technologies have reduced costs to an about $1.10 to produce one gallon of ethanol.
13: What other countries make and use ethanol? | Brazil Europe Sweden France India Some Canadian Provinces | They use ethanol because it is cheaper. Also, they are trying to cut down their oil use. | France makes it's ethanol out of grapes. :)
14: What is the Clean Air Act? | The Clean Air Act is the law that makes sure all Americans have safe air to breathe. | It requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) to set national health-based air quality standards to protect against common pollutants. | It was passed in 1970 and amended in 1977 and 1990.
15: Is ethanol good for our vehicles? | It is bad in older cars because its corrosive to the materials. It isn't as bad in newer cars.
16: What type of law surrounds the use of ethanol? | Two main laws (the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992) ordered the use of cleaner-burning fuels and vehicles. | These laws require the states, municipals, and private fleets meet stricter emission guidelines.
17: The Energy Policy Act required that 70% of all new fleet vehicle purchases meet the new standards by 2000.