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Everything Cells

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BC: The End!

FC: Everything Cells | By: Ameera Khalid Lucas Bradford Ryan McMeekin

1: The Three Principles of Cell Theory | The Three Principles of Cell Theory are that 1. All life forms are made from one or more cells. 2. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells. 3. The cell is the smallest form of life. | Theodor Schwann, Rudolph Virchow, Matthias Schleiden, and Robert C. Hooke are responsible for the discovery of cells. Some other things to know about the cell theory are that DNA is passed from cell to cell (hereditary genes.) All cells are composed of the same chemicals. The cell theory is part of the foundation for biology.

2: Contributions of Four Scientists | Robert C. Hooke He was not actually supposed to ever discover cells (he was assigned by King Charles II to a scientist named Christopher Wren. After a few years of work, Wren decided that he didn't have time to continue his studies so he gave the duty to an upcoming scientist with a knack for drawing and mechanics. Hooke would go on to discover the building blocks of life (cells) in a piece of cork. The pictures to the right are Robert's drawing of a cork.

3: Contributions of Four Scientists Continued | Rudolph Virchow Virchow was a medical researcher and teacher who was often known to disprove several theories such as the fact that disease does not originate from phlebitis but from cells. He is the scientist that is responsible for the idea that "all cells arise from pre-existing cells."

4: Contributions of Four Scientists Continued | Theodor Schwann He was born on December 7, 1810 and took after his father, a mechanically talented man. Theodor spent most of his childhood inventing small machines and tools. As a young adult, Schwann worked as an assistant for scientist, Johannes Muller. One day when Schwann was having dinner with Matthias Schleiden, the subject of their conversation turned to vegetable cells and in the end, Schleiden's theory was changed from "all animals are made of cells" to "all life forms are made from one or more cells."

5: Matthias Schleiden Matthias was a law student with a part time hobby of botany (the study of plants.) He was the fourth co-founder of the cell theory and he helped discover that "all life forms are made from one or more cells with Theodor Schwann. | Contributions of Four Scientists Continued

6: Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic Cells | Eukaryotic cells are much bigger than prokaryotic cells. The plasma membrane in prokaryotic cells have no carbohydrates while eukaryotic cells do. Eukaryotic cells also have larger ribosomes. | Prokaryotic cells use binary fission when cells are being divided while eukaryotic cells use mitosis. Prokaryotic cells don't have DNA wrapped on proteins but eukaryotic cells do. Prokaryotic cells have a more complex cell wall than eukaryotic cells. | Prokaryotic Cell

7: Although there are many differences between the two, they both have RNA, DNA, ribosomes, a cell membrane, and they both are made up of proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, nucleic acids, fats, and vitamins. Prokaryotic cells don't have mitochondria or chloroplast while eukaryotic cells have additional organelles (nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles...) The biggest difference betweeen them is that prokaryotic cells have no nucleus while eukaryotic cells do. | Prokaryotic Vs. Eukaryotic Cells Continued

8: Plant Vs. Animal Cells | Unlike plant cells, animal cells don't contain chloroplast, a cell wall, and plastids. It is very rare to see cilia in plant cells but they are in animal cells. Animal cells are circular while plant cells are more rectangular. Centrioles are present in all animal cells but only present in lower plant cells. Animal cells also have small vacuoles and plant cells have one huge vacuole that takes up 90 percent of the cell.

9: Plant Vs. Animal Cells Continued | Lysosomes are usually not found in plant cells but can be under certain circumstances. Animal and plant cells both have a nucleus, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, and microtubes. | Animal Cell

10: Ten Cell Structures | 1. Cell Wall- The cell wall is a membrane of a cell that forms outside the cell membrane to help keep shape and rigidity. | 2. Cell Membrane- Cell membranes are specialized with different proteins and lipid components to do different things in a cell. | 3. Nucleus- The large membrane bounded organelle that contains the genetic material in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes.

11: Ten Cell Structures Continued | 4. Chromosomes- Several thread-like bodies that carry genes in a linear order. | 5. Ribosomes- Small, round particles in a cell made up of RNA and protein that are primarily involved in the assembly of proteins by translating messenger RNA (a process called translation.)

12: Ten Cell Structures Continued | 6. Mitochondria- Spherical or rod shaped organelles found within the cytoplasm eukaryotic cells. They are referred to as the "power house of the cell" since they serve as the site for high-energy compound production. | 7. Golgi Complex- A membranous complex of vesicles, vacuoles, and flat sacs in the cytoplasm of most cells. | 8. Lysosomes- A membrane bound organelle in the cytoplasm of most cells containing various hydrolytic enzymes that function in intracellular digestion

13: Ten Cell Structures Continued | 9. Centrioles- A self-replicating, fibrous, cylindrical shaped organelle located in the cytoplasm near the nucleus of most animal cells. | 10. Peroxisomes- Any of the micro bodies present in vertebrate animal cells, especially in liver or kidney cells (they are rich in enzyme peroxidase, catalase, amino acid oxidase, and urate oxidase.)

14: Homeostasis | Homeostasis is when an organism or a cell regulates its internal conditions to keep itself functioning properly despite outside changing conditions. An example in humans is when we are playing a sport for a long time out int the heat and we sweat. This is an example of homeostasis because the sweat is produced from our body to prevent overheating. This works by a negative feedback system. It happens when one or more of your body organs or functions aren't working properly.

15: Homeostasis Continued | The specific receptors in your organs send messages to the brain that there is something needed or there is too much of something (then the brain will send a message telling the function how to fix the problem.) For example, if your blood pressure is too high, the pancreas will send a message to the brain asking it what to do. The brain will then tell the pancreas what to do (produce insulin into the bloodsteam.) Without homeostasis, we wouldn't be able to adapt to our enviroment and would die.

16: Cell Membrane | The cell membrane is the outer barrier of an animal cell. It seperates that cytoplasm from its surroundings. It is made of proteins and phospholipids. They aren't all in one piece though; the lipids are the main structure and the proteins are around the holes to help move things in and out of the cell. They look like a head and a tail close-up. The heads are hydrophilic and the tails are hydrophobic. Both layers together are a bilayer. Polar molecules cannot enter the cell because of the lipid bilayer.

17: Cell Membrane Continued | Only certain transports from the membrane can transport polar molecules because the proteins all take certain molecules. Therefore, the cell membrane helps provide structure for the cell, provide stable sites for the binding and catalysis of enzymes allow directed cell or organelle motility, and protect the cell from harmful surroundings.

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