FC: River Valley Civilizations Grant Shuler Mrs.Bartlett
1: River Valley Civilizations Mesopotamia- 2,3 Indus Valley- 4,5 China- 6,7 Egypt- 8,9
2: Mesopotamia | 1.Mesopotamia is known as the "Fertile Crescent" because it has rich soil and is crescent-shaped. It is so fertile because of silt from receding floods. 2.Mesopotamia was made up of city-states. The city-states included Uruk,Kish,Lagash,Umma, and Ur. At the center of the cities was a walled temple with a ziggurat at the center. 3.Mesopotamia's government is controlled by their religious leaders, the priests who hear from the gods. The priests stayed in a ziggurat, where they managed irrigation and taxes. 4.Mesopotamia had written language called cuneiform, which was made up of wedge-shaped symbols. 5.The Sumerian's religion was polytheistic Enlil, the god of storms and air, was considered one of their most powerful gods. They feared him because he was seen as the raging floods. 6.The Sumerians came up with Arithmetic and Geometry. It was needed because of the constant surveying and building. They also invented a number system in base 60 and that a circle is 360 degrees. 7.Hammurabi invented a code of laws that would help unify his empire. The code was called the called the Code of Hammurabi. The code was basically an eye for an eye and consisted of 282 laws. 8.The Sumerians invented the wheel, the sail, and the plow. These inventions helped them greatly by making farming and transportation easier. 9The Sumerian society was made up of social classes. It consisted of kings, landlords, and priests at the top, then wealthy merchants, then the majority of Sumerians, the workers, and at the bottom was the slaves. 10.Sargon of Akkad, a conqueror, led his army and defeated the other city-states around 2350B.C. He formed the worlds first empire. His dynasty only lasted about 200 years, due to famine, conflicts, and invasions.
4: Indus Valley | 1. The Indus Valley lies between the Indus and Ganges rivers. These rivers flood and when they recede they leave large deposits of rich soil. 2. The Indus Valley is a subcontinent, because it is seperated from the rest of the continent; the mountains to the North and the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal to the South. 3. Historians have not yet been able to decipher the Indus writing system. Evidence mainly comes from archaelogical digs, many sites have not been explored of have been washed away by floods. 4. The Indus civilization put extensive planning into their cities, they laid them out on a grid system. The larger, more important buildings were in the center called a citadel. 5. Indus engineers created sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems.These systems could rival drainage systems before the 19th century. 6.Indus social classes seem to be unified. The housing seems to be mainly the same, also toys suggest a society thats could afford nonessential items. 7.The Harappans conducted a thriving trade throughout the region. Gold and silver came from the North and jewels from Persia were crafted into jewelry. They also knew how to grow and weave cotton into cloth for trade. Also their is evidence they traded with the Sumerians. 8. The Indus government is believed to be a theocracy, but not site of a temple has been found. 9.The Indus peoples' religious artifacts show links to modern Hindu culture. Figures show early representations of Hindu gods on artifacts. 10. The decline of the Indus Valley civilization is credited to a shift in tectonic plates. The shift would have called major earthquakes and alters to the course of the Indus river, leaving cities destroyed or left with no way to trade.
6: China | 1. China was somewhat isolated from the other early civilization due to the Pacific Ocean and Yellow Sea to the East and mountain ranges and deserts to South, West, and North. 2.China has two main rivers systems that flow from the mountains in the West to the Pacific Ocean, the Huang He "Yellow River" and Yangtze Rivers. The Huang He is called the "Yellow River" because of the deposits of yellowish silt that is left after flooding called loess. 3.The social classes in China were sharply divided between nobles and peasants. The ruling class consisted of warrior-nobles headed by a king. 4.In China, family was closely linked to religion. The believed that their ancestors spirits had the power to help of bring disaster to the living members of the families. 5.Chinese writing consists of each character stands for one syllabe or unit of language. There was no link to Chinese spoken language and its written language. 6.The Mandate of Heaven is the just ruler that has divine approval. The approval can be granted and taken away from a ruler. 7.The Chinese government was a feudalistic government. Local lords would fortify their land and had to submit to the superior strength and control of Zhou rulers. 8.The Zhou Dynasty advanced in technology and trade. They built road and canals to improve trade, introduced coin money, and invented cast iron 9.Family was the central ideal in Chinese society. The most important virtue was to respect your elders. 10. The Shang surrounded their cities with massive walls. Remains of one city include a wall wiht a 118 foot base that encircled an area of 1.2 square miles. It probably took 10000 workers and 12 years.
8: EGYPT | 1. The Nile river floods yearly in Egypt, when its recedes it leaves a rich deposit of silt. The silt is one of the main reasons the Ancient Egyptians could thrive. 2. In Ancient Egypt pharaohs ruled the civilization. The pharaohs were seen as gods, and were thought to be almost one of the most powerful gods of the heavens. 3.The government of Ancient Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt, but was unified around 3000BC. A king named is thought to be the reason for this unification. 4.Ancient Egyptians believed that their pharaoh ruled even after his death. This is reason for mummifying their pharaohs and creating enormous structures for their burial called pyramids. 5.Early Egyptians were polytheistic. Their most important gods were Re, the sun god, and Osiris, god of the dead. The Egyptians worshiped more than 2000 gods and goddesses. 6.The Ancient Egyptians were not locked in their social classes. The lower and middle classes could gain higher statuses from marriage or success in their jobs. Slaves could gain their freedom through loyal service. 7.Egyptian writing started as simple pictographs and then developed into a more flexible system called hieroglyphics. This comes from Greek words "hieros" and "gluph", meaning "sacred carving". 8.HIeroglyphics were first written on clay, but the Egyptians invented papyrus. This is a paper-like sheet that is made from reeds that have been pressed together. 9.The Ancient Egyptians advanced in both science and technology. They invented a calendar was so accurate it fell short of the true solar year by only 6 hours.. 10.Egyptian medicine was famous in the ancient world. Their doctors knew how to check heart rates of people, splint broken bones, and even conducted surgery at times.