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History in a Flas

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BC: Written By Daniel London Salman Lakhani | Award WInner of the Best Book Ever

FC: History in a Flash | Written by: Salman L Daniel L

1: This book is dedicated to coach reedy

2: Table of Contents | Ancient River valley Civilization... pg 4-5 Classical Greece and Rome... pg 6-7 Post Classical Asia and Africa... pg 8-9 Medieval Europe... pg 10-11 Renaissance and Reformation... pg 12-13 Enlightenment and Revolution... pg 14-15 World War I... pg 16-17 World War II... pg 18-19 Cold War... pg 20-21 Glossary... pg 22-23

4: Ancient River Valley civilizations include: Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Harrapan and the Xia. These civilizations came about approximately 5000 years ago after the end of the neolithic era and were the first complex, politically centralized civilizations. Their economy and lives were built around agriculture. These civilizations were often located around water sources such as rivers and seas. For example the Nile River Valley civilization was located along the Nile River in Egypt to provide water for crops and for human consumption. The people in these civilizations lived together in small communities and had a surplus amount of food which allowed them to have specific jobs such as doctors, builders and farmers. This often led to inventions such as plumbing, city planning, and written language. | Ancient River Valley Civilizations

5: What if people had not learned to farm? | If people had not learned to farm then man would still remain in the neolithic era and people would live a life of nomadic hunting and gathering. Because everyone would spend their time looking for food they would have no time to develop advanced technologies that helped shape today's world.

6: Classical Greece/Rome | In many Greek City-States, Kings and Queens often ruled with a government known as Monarchy. Later on City-states adopted an aristocracy. Later as trade expanded, a new class of the wealthy came about. When this group of people became dissatisfied with the aristocratic rule they formed an oligarchy. In classical Greece two major city states emerged known as the Spartans and Athenians. The Spartans were located in the southern part of Greece. For men in this city-state, life revolved around military training. Like its political structure, Sparta's population was diverse and consisted of several social groups. The other group, Athenians were located in eastern Greece. Athenian reformers tried creating a democracy which would be ruled by free adult males. Repeated conflict occurred between the nobles and the common people.

7: What if Athens had not embraced democracy? | The Athenian's democracy influenced many modern governments including the United States, if they had not embraced democracy then many modern nations would remain under the control of Monarchies and Theocracies.

8: Post-Classical Asia | A group of people known as the Mongols, led by Genghis Khan, began conquering Eastern Asia and united the silk road under one rule as well as mainland China. This made it easier for western Europe to recover from the Dark Ages and also re-established contact with China. Among the travelers was Marco Polo. His travels help spark the interest in China which helped the start of the Age of Exploration. The Mongols rule was greatly fierce and discouraged innovation of the arts. Corruption among the Mongols lead to the fall of their empire but soon after the Ming dynasty took over and once again brought wealth and power back to China.

9: What if the Mongols had not opened the silk road to safe travels? | If the Mongols had not captured the territory of the Silk Road which made travel much easier and safer for traders, then ideas and goods would not have been transferred between East Asia and Western Eurasia as easily.

10: Medieval Europe | Also known as the Dark Ages, this era in European history followed the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500. During this time there was a decline in education and almost no scientific advancements were made. Feudalism was on the rise, many common people lived and worked on manors ruled by wealthy lords. On these manors, common people would receive land to farm and protection in return for providing food to the lord. An epidemic known as the Black Plague struck Europe and ravaged the population. Pope Urban II launched multiple crusades to reclaim the holy land, Jerusalem, from the Muslims.

11: What if Pope Urban II had not launched the Crusades? | If Pope Urban II had not launched the Crusades then we would not have the knowledge we have today about medicine and science recovered from captured Muslim cities.

12: Renaissance and Reformation | The Renaissance was a period of time lasting from about 1300 to 1600 during which renewed interest in classical culture led to changes in art, learning, and views of the world. It was also known as the the era of rebirth. Humanism, which focused on human potential and achievements, became a major influence on artists and architects. During this time many people many people were devout catholics, however the basic spirit of the Renaissance society was secular. Popes spent a great amount of money on arts to beautify Rome and became patrons of the arts by financially supporting the artists.

13: What if Gutenberg had not invented the printing press? | If the Gutenberg Press had never been invented then we would still be writing by hand, literacy rate would be much lower and news would travel much slower to different parts of the world.

14: Enlightenment and Revolutions | Enlightenment was the period of time when current reasoning and logic were questioned, it was also known as the Age of Reason. People began to question the Churches authority with rationality and the Scientific method. During this time many new inventions were created such as Gutenberg Press which sped up the process of spreading ideas. During this time many new scientists and theorists emerged including Nicolas Copernicus with his theory of heliocentrics. Because the way of life was criticized, many revolutionaries came about. The Scientific Revolution was one of the major revolutions of its time in which science began to be characterized by observations rather than previously accepted beliefs.

15: What if the enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists? | If the enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists the thoughts of a revolution for a democracy would have never occurred.

16: World War I | World War I began with the assassination of Austrian Archduke France Ferdinand. This escalated into full out war when Austria declared war on Serbia. Russia, Serbia's Allie, imeadiately began mobilizing troops on the Russian-Austrian border and on the German border, expecting the Germans to join Austria. By 1914, Europe was divided into two rivals, the Triple Entente(Great Britain, France, Russia) and the Triple Alliance(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy). The war began to trudge on and consisted of slow and unending trench warfare. A deadlocked region in northern France became known as the western front. During the gruesome trench warfare soldiers first experienced the deadly mustard gas and machine guns. The war finally ended in 1918.

17: What if the Austrian heir to the throne was not assassinated? | If the Serbians had not assassinated Archduke France Ferdinand, then the Austrians would have never attacked Serbia and World War I would have never occurred.

18: World War II | World War II was a multinational conflict between the totalitarian axis(Japan, Italy, Germany) and Allies(United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden, Russia). This war was fought in two theaters, the Pacific and the European. It started when Nazi Germany invaded Poland and broke the Treaty of Versalilles. The US came in to the war after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. This conflict was important because it was the first modern war and ended many totalitarian regimes. The Allies defeated the Germans on May 7, 1945. They then continued their effort to defeat Japan during their island hoping campaign. For the first time during the war American soldiers experienced Kamikaze pilots. Because of the Japanese unwillingness to surrender the US was forced to drop two Atomic Bombs on the Japanese islands of Nagasaki and Hiroshima.

19: What if the United States had not dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan? | If the United States had not dropped the Atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima then the American death toll would have been 30 times greater.

20: Cold War | The Cold War was a state of diplomatic hostility that developed between the two super powers, US and Soviet Union. It began in 1949 and lasted until the break up of USSR in 1991. It not only affected the US and USSR, but also affected world alliances as well. Because of fears of the Berlin Blockade, ten western European nations joined the US and formed the alliance known as NATO. In response, the Soviets developed an alliance system in 1955 that came to be known as the Warsaw Pact. Because of the Soviets influence of communism in Asia the US began practicing the theory of containment. This led to disputes and wars over the spread of communism in Vietnam and South Korea.

21: What if the United States had not adopted the theory of containment? | If the United States had not adopted the theory of containment, then the Vietnam and Korean wars would have never taken place and South Korea would have fallen under the control of communist North Korea.

22: Glossary | Agriculture- cultivating land, growing crops and raising livestock Archduke France Ferdinand-Heir of the Austrian Throne who's assassination sparked the start of WW I Aristocracy- Government ruled by upper class Atomic Bomb-a bomb who's explosive force comes from nuclear fission Black Plague-An epidemic in Europe which killed many people City-States- A city which functions as a independent political unit Civilization-advanced state of human society Copernicus-Scientist during the scientific revolution who came up with the idea of heliocentric Containment- US policy in which US tried to stop the spread of communism Crusades-expeditions in which Christian warriors sought to recover control of the holy land from the Muslims Dynasty-A series of rulers from a single family Gutenberg Press-the first printing press that used removable type Heliocentric-idea that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun Humanism-movement in which thinkers focused on human potential and achievements Kamikaze-Japanese suicide pilots in WW II Lord-A person who controlled land and therefore could grant estates Manors-a lord's estate in feudal Europe

23: Monarchy-a government in which power is in the hands of a single person Mongols-a group of warring nomads who ruled China under Genghis Khan Mustard Gas- gas used in chemical warfare NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization Neolithic Era-period when people learned when people learned how to grow crops and raise animals Nomad-someone who has no permanent home and wanders from place to place in search of food and water Oligarchy-a government in which the power is in the hands of a few people Patrons-people who support artists, especially financially Renaissance-period of time lasting from about 1300 to 1600 during which renewed interest in classical culture led to changes in art, learning, and views of the world. Scientific method-logical procedure for gathering information Scientific revolution-major change in Europe in which previous beliefs were questioned Secular-apart from religion Silk Road-Trade route in Asia Totalitarian-government control over every aspect of public and private life Trench Warfare-form of warfare in which armies fight each other from trenches Western Front-a region in France in WW I where forces of the allies and the central powers battled each other

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