S: History of the World
FC: By Justin McVeigh & Victor Portillo | https://spreadsheets.google.com/viewform?hl=en&pli=1&formkey=dE01TDdMekRKTVNLbTdLRWtyVnFWV3c6MQ#gid=0
1: Table Of Contents | 1. Ancient River Valley Civilization 2. What if people had not learned how to farm? 3. Classical Greece/Rome 4. What if Athens had not embraced democracy? 5. Post-Classical Asia/Africa 6. What if the Bantu Migrations did not take place in Africa? 7. Post-Classicical (Medieval) Europe 8. What if the Black Plague did not attack Western Europe? 9.Renaissance/Reformation 10. What if Gutenburg hadn't invented the printing press? 11. Enlightenment/Revolutions 12. What if the enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists? 13. World War I 14. What if Germany had not been solely blamed for the World War? 15. World War II 16. What if the U.S. had not dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan? 17. Cold War 18. What if the Soviet Union had landed on the moon first and not the United States?
2: The ancient river valley civilizations were the first groups of people to live together and work as a unit and grow to become a city. The civilizations were made possible by the Neolithic Revolution, also known as the discovery of farming. With farming, the five characteristics of a civilization were able to take place which are advanced cities, specialized workers (people such as doctors, teachers, police, etc.), complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology. The five main civilizations were the Egyptians, Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Indus River, and the Chinese. The Mesopotamians were the most well known and often considered the first people. They were the first civilization to create writing and it was done on cuneiform, stone tablets that were used to make letters on. They were also polytheistic, or believed in many gods, as were all of the other civilizations except for the Hebrews.
3: What if people had not learned how to farm? | The ancient river valley civilizations started the neolithic revolution with their discovery of farming. However, if they had not learned how to farm, then there would not be any civilizations. Life expectancy would remain low because there is no opportunity to improve life and avoid disease or injury because life is consumed with attempting to find food and survive. Without farming, no tribes would ever be able to remain in one place and the cultures of each area of the world would not be as diverse or unique as they are today.
4: The Classical time period was one of great innovations and discoveries that fueled society and propelled the human race forward into war and philosophy. The time period was dominated by a Peloponnesian Rivalry between the two city-states, powerful cities that were extremely large and governed themselves within a country, Athens and Sparta. Sparta was an oligarchy, a type of government ruled by a few individuals. They prided themselves on having a strong military and were capable of going to war with just about anyone in the world and winning. This was due to their intense and rigorous training that included the boys leaving home to train at age 7 to train. The common idea taught to everyone in Sparta was to put Sparta above all else, a very nationalistic view. Athens was the polar opposite of Sparta. They instituted Democracy, a government system where the people of the country make decisions, and promoted individualistic values. Athens was known for their education and arts as well as the viewpoint towards women. Women were not expected to be seen or do anything but help and work around the house. The Romans took democracy to a new level with their republic, a system where elected representatives rule. They also broke out with new technology such as the aqueduct, a system used to transport water.
5: What if Athens had not embraced democracy? | Athens united their city state under a new form of government that was little known to the world called democracy. If they had not embraced democracy and showed that it was a successful government system, then the United States would not have this type of government today. Yet there are even more ramifications that would affect the world. The countries that were powerful and were dictatorships would continue to grow and millions of people would die needlessly because there would be no way to evict the current leaders.
6: The Post-Classical period in Asia and Africa was an era of exchange and encounters. In Asia, two major dynasties, or series of rulers from a family that rule a country for many years, rose above the rest. The Tang brought new innovations and ideas to society and revamped the way government officers were elected. They created civil service exams, an examination system for the public and the highest scorers were picked to be a government employee. They also created moveable print in printing, porcelain, gunpowder, and mechanical clocks. Altogether the Tang were very organized and helped contribute to the greater good of society. The Yuan dynasty was lead by Kublai Khan, the grandson of Ghengis Khan. This group of people tolerated Chinese, but wouldn’t allow them in public office. Kublai Khan made friends with Marco Polo, an Italian merchant who traveled throughout China and discovered gunpowder and coal and brought them back to Europe while glorifying the Yuans.
7: What if the Bantu Migrations did not take place in Africa? | The Bantu Migrations in Africa led to the spread of African culture and a similarity in all African languages. If the Bantu Migrations never happened, then the continent of Africa would be extremely diverse and southern Africa would not have much in common with northern Africa. Also, the migrations led to the development of new cultures and new languages. Many of these languages are still around today and are part of the intertwined network of languages that are spread across all of Africa.
8: Post-Classical (Medieval) Europe was a time where knowledge and advanced technology was lost. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a time known as the Dark Ages, where all wisdom and advances in science, math, and literature were lost. The only thing remaining from the Roman Empire was the Byzantine Empire, an empire that rose up immediately following the fall of Rome and is most famous for one of its leaders, Justinian. Justinian is known for his code of laws that were very strict and severe, as well as his ruthless and strict control over his people. The Byzantine Empire was home to the Hagia Sophia, a massive church that millions visited and worshipped in. The Crusades came as a result of issues between Muslims and Christians over land and relationships. The Crusades were a time period that ended the Dark Ages and returned knowledge to the Europeans that the Muslims had kept.
9: What if the Black Plague did not attack Western Europe? | The Black Plague swept across the European nations with ferocity of a charging Rhino. It killed a third of the population as it infested the entire continent. With all of these deaths, much of the population’s geniuses and prodigy’s died. If the Black Plague hadn’t swept through Europe, the sky is the limit to how many new inventions they would have had because there could have been multiple mathematicians or scientists who developed new ideas, theorems, or products.
10: The Renaissance was a rebirth of Greek and Roman knowledge. It immediately followed the Crusades and was the result of the Europeans ending Feudalism, a type of order where rich nobles allow peasants to live on their land in exchange for money and loyalty. With democracies and other government systems coming into place, artists, philosophers and scientists flourished with the freedoms and knowledge to create and invent new things. The Reformation came about as a result of Martin Luther. Luther voiced his complaints about the church on the front door of the church. His complaints were based on the issue of the corrupt clergy, or priests, because they did a lot to anger others. They stole money from tithes, they were the only people at the time that could read the Bible so they would lie and say that in order to go to heaven, one must pay a certain amount of money or give nice gifts to the church. The clergy would then pocket the gifts and this angered Luther and other members of the church. As a result of the Reformation, Christianity and new denominations, or types of Christianity were formed.
11: What if Gutenburg hadn't invented the printing press? | Johan Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany and printed the Bible in mass production. He printed it in the vernacular so that everyone could read it. If he had not invented the printing press, then many of the citizens would have never been able to read and understand the Bible and the clergy would have continued to be corrupt and lie to the people of Europe. If that happened, then there would be no reformation and the church would have never been challenged or reformed and new denominations of Christianity would not exist.
12: The enlightenment era was the greatest period of philosophy, intellectual, scientific and cultural life in Europe. Many great people came up with political ideas which helped shape many of the modern governments in the world today. They also helped lead to many revolutions in the world which helped gain independence for countries. The first revolution was the American Revolution which gave the United States independence from Great Britain. Taxes we raised on the colonists to help pay Britain’s debt in the French – Indian War. They felt they had no say in government, & finally in 1776 the United States finally gained independence. Then came the French Revolution was when the commoners killed the King and Queen and overthrew the government. They felt they were treated unequally and taxed in unfair quantities. The main cause was that the King was weak and unconcerned about the country’s social inequality issues. Last was the Latin Revolution which came to be due to unequal class system and the people’s of idea of independence. The class system was made up of the peninsulares, the creoles, and the mullattos. The independence of the countries were gain when one country helped out each other achieve independence.
13: The colonists in the Americas embraced the enlightenment ideas and philosophies that thinkers in the European countries had. Without Enlightenment ideas, the colonists would have been lost in a world of British taxes and oppression. If they had not embraced the ideas, then there might not have been a Revolution so quickly, if at all. If a Revolution did occur and the colonists successfully overthrew the British regime, then there would be a scramble for power and order because there would not be any guiding theories or principals regarding government and society. | What if the Enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists?
14: World War I was the cause of Germany competing with the United Kingdom in building submarines. All of the World's major powers were linked though alliances which lead to trust issues between the countries. Imperialism & Nationalism each contributed to the lust and desire for land that the major powers were seeking. The war lead to Russia's industrialization through the Russia Revolution. Germany in the end was blamed for the war and had to pay millions of dollars in reparations through the Treaty of Versailles.
15: Germany took blame for all of the deaths and money spent on WWI. This crushed them emotionally and economically. However, if they had not taken all of this blame, two things may have happened. One, there might not have been any World War II at all because Germany might not hold bad feelings towards anyone else. Or two, and the scarier of possibilities, Germany would have had more money and power to strike the world even harsher than what actually happened in WWII. | What if Germany had not been solely blamed for WWI?
16: It all began when Adolf Hitler rose to power in Germany with Nazi party. He won power through a scapegoat which took the blame for the First World War. He invaded multiple countries with ease. The British and French let him do so through appeasement. Mustilini came into power in Italy through fascism. The United States was brought in through the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The British, Americans, & Russians joined together to take down Nazi Germany. The end of the war came through the Manhattan Project, which was the atomic bombing of Japan.
17: The United States nearly blew Japan off of the map with their two atomic bombs. But if the U.S. had never bombed Japan, then WWII could have been extended even longer. Even with events in Europe coming to a halt, Japan was still firing for all it was worth and the U.S. had to bomb them. Without the bombs, Japan would have grown more aggressive and could have eventually attempted to invade the U.S. | What of the U.S. had not dropped the Atomic bombs on Japan?
18: Cold War | The Cold War was a time of bloodless fighting. Two of the world's giants were going at it. In one corner was the United States, & in the other was the Soviet Union. Their goal was to out-do each other. From the fighting came Spunknik, the man on the moon, & the hydrogen bomb. The United States came to the rescue for the small countries suffering from Communist Appression. For in the end, no shots were fired, but many live were changed due to the the United States' idea of Containment.
19: What if the Soviet union had landed on the moon first and not the United States? | During the Space Race, two national powers fought in a heavyweight bout. The prize: world glory and pride for breaking gravity’s barrier and visiting the unknown world- space. The United States won this bout over the Soviet Union when Neil Armstrong set foot on the moon. However, the worldview of America and Russia could be reversed if the Soviets beat us to the moon. The Soviets would have had pride and a swagger that would only propel them to push forward to more extreme accomplishments and possibly even go to war again with the U.S. to prove their superiority.