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History Project

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FC: California Regents vs. Bakke 1978 By: Nicole and Molly

1: Table Of Contents | 1. Background Information on Allan Bakke | 2. Application Process | 3. U.C. Davis/ Medical Quota | 4. Local Court Case Background | 5. Arguments | 6. Local Case Outcome | 7. Bakke in the Supreme Court | 8. Cox's Arguments | 9. Ways the Quota was Illegal | 10. Decision | 11. Aftermath | 12. Citations

2: Background Information | Allan Bakke

3: Allan Bakke attended an all white high school in Florida. He first attended college in Minnesota where he was an outstanding student. He earned a degree in engineering from the University of Minnesota. Bakke then went on to serve in the Marine Corps until 1967. After, he worked for NASA in the San Francisco Bay area. He decided to live in San Francisco with his wife to start a family.

4: Bakke applied to U.C. Davis college as a 35 year old. Bakke was aware that he was applying to colleges at an older age and knew that it was a disadvantage. He was rejected from all 12 schools which he applied to. The reasoning for several schools was because of his age. He found it interesting that U.C. Davis' minority applicants with lower MCAT scores and grade point averages were accepted over him. | Application Process

5: U.C. Davis' Medical Quota | The University of California Medical School in Davis California was encouraged by the Association of American Medical Colleges to admit more students with economic and ethnic backgrounds. U.C. Davis created a policy that forced them to accept 16 percent of the 100 spots to be filled by students of minorities. Between 1970 and 1974 U.C. Davis admitted: 33 Mexican Americans, 26 African Americans, 1 Native American, and 12 Asian Americans.

6: Local Court Case Background | On June 29, 1974 Reynold Colvin, Bakke's lawyer, filed a complaint to the local country court house in Woodland, California. The reason for the complaint was an issue of race. He stated that Bakke's rights, under the 14th amendment, had not been upheld. His case was argued in the YOLO County Courthouse.

7: Colvin had to prove that Bakke was truly being discriminated upon. He wanted to prove that the university did have a quota for minority students. Colvin also wanted to prove that Bakke's chances of being admitted had been hurt by this quota system. | Arguments

8: University of California Davis | Yolo County Courthouse

9: Outcome | The University lost at the California Supreme Court level. The court ruled that Bakke should be admitted. In mid November 1967, less than a month after the California Supreme Court had handed down its decision, the University of California moved to appeal the case to the United States Supreme Court. On February 22, 1977 the Supreme Court agreed to hear the case.

10: Bakke in the Supreme Court | The case began on October 12, 1977. People had been camping outside the courthouse since the evening before to witness the trial. The country has not been engaged in an event dealing with racial relations since the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. Warren E. Burger was the Chief Justice for this case. University of California's lawyer, Archibald Cox, was chosen to represent the college. He was a very respected lawyer with an extensive background from Harvard. | Chief Justice Warren

11: 1. All applicants were qualified 2. The University had a right in order to remedy generations of racial discrimination, to consider a person's ethnic background when selecting from this large pool of qualified applicants 3. The University's autonomy in the selection of its students should not be taken away. | Cox's Arguments

12: Ways the Quota was Illegal | 1. It violated the Fourteenth Amendment 2. It violated the privileges and immunities portion of the California Constitution 3. It violated Title VI of the 1964 Civil Right Act

13: Decision | At 10 A.M sharp Chief Justice Warren Burger stepped out from behind the red velvet curtains and court was in session. This case had been far from an easy decision. Four of the justices concluded that Bakke had been treated unlawfully and should have been admitted. The other four justices concluded that U.C. Davis did not violate the 14th amendment. Justice Lewis Powell voted with the first 4 leaving the case in a 5-4 ruling in Bakke's favor.

14: Aftermath | Bakke's impact on higher education had become clear to the public. This case created more subjective, Harvard style admissions programs at schools. Special admission processes had been demolished from many local schools due to how unfair Bakke's situation was. This movement even carried over to field of employment. Companies went to extents to make sure that racial quotas verse white quotas was equal.

15: Attitudes towards racial discrimination in employment changed in the 1980's. However, the economy worsened and more white workers began to resent plans that would give minority workers an advantage in the competition for hard-to-find jobs. Under President Reagan, efforts to help African Americans declined. The response to court cases involving affirmative actions was mixed by the nation's public.

16: Citations | Images Chief Justice Warren E. Burger. N.d. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2012. . Bakke, Allan Paul Biography . N.d. Bakke, Allan Paul Biography . N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2012. . Yolo County Courthouse in Woodland, California. N.d. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2012. . UC Davis Mondavi Center. N.d. UC Davis Mondavi Center. Web. 23 May 2012. . The Amway Lawsuits Explained gavel. N.d. The Amway Lawsuits Explained gavel. Web. 23 May 2012. .

17: Book Banfield, Susan. The Bakke Case . Berkeley Heights : Enslow Publishers , 1998 . Print. Website Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. "Regents of the University of California v. Bakke ." Fact Monster . Pearson Education , 2007. Web. 23 May 2012. . | Citations

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