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History Scrapbook

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FC: Shannon Kapush Mr. Somerfield | CHY4U0 | History Scrapbook | Renaissance - Louis XIV

1: Table of Contents | The Renaissance ~ pg 1 to 6 | Otto Man Turks ~ pg 7 to 9 | Protestant Reformation ~ pg 10 to 15 | Counter Reformation ~ pg 16 to 19 | Age of Discovery ~ pg 20 to 23 | Age of Religious Wars ~ pg 24 to 29

2: The Renaissance | 1300-1650 | "Rebirth" | The Renaissance was a time of rebirth in Western Europe. This involved a reawakening of interest in several topics such as literature, art, government and everyday living of the public. | *1 | The culture of the Renaissance significantly changed the way those of Western Europe viewed themselves and the world around them. To this day, it continues to be considered a part of a larger Age of Religion. | "In order to forget my own time, I have constantly striven to place myself in spirit in other ages, and consequently I delighted in history..." Francesco Petrarch, Italian poet: (1304-1374)

3: Art of the Renaissance | *2 | Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci | The Last Supper Leonardo da Vinci | David Michelangelo | The Renaissance is best known for its cultural achievements, primarily in art. | The Birth of Venus Botticelli

4: Humanism | Who is Petrarch? | Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. | Writers and artists of the Renaissance used this term to distinguish their cultural program. There was an extreme importance of simply living with human dignity- thus, being a responsible, as well overall good person in hopes of developing a better life in society. | Humanism -derived from Latin term humanitas | = "good human" | Petrarch (1304-1374), was an Italian humanist. | Petrarch was highly interested in the recovery of classical languages/texts. He stated: "We frankly confess that we have been guided by thee, assisted by thy judgments." A completely new view of human nature/accomplishment was discovered in the Renaissance. A "Renaissance Man" was described as being one who excelled in many areas, above the ordinary. Those such as Leonardo da Vinci who painted, wrote, invented and excelled in mathematics, and Machiavelli who had a passion for writing philosophy in areas such as history and politics are those who displayed true Renaissance qualities. | *3

5: Christian Humanism | The belief in God had created an entirely new view of human nature. It was stated by the Italian philosopher, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) that God created humans with thoughts of the ability to shape their own lives. Christian humanism valued the existence of life simply in relation with Christian faith. | "Man's discovery of himself and the world." | *4 | Mirandola portrayed humans as free agents who are capable of the best as well as the worst. Therefor, humanists felt that education was extremely important in teaching children at an early start. This would prepare those to be a responsible citizen in the future. From this, people felt devoted to both their social and political community because of their achievements.

6: The Medici Family | *5 | of FLORENCE, ITALY | The Medici Family was an Italian bourgeois family that ruled Florence and later Tuscany from 1430 to 1737. Through banking and commerce, the family acquired great wealth, and were possibly the richest family in all of Italy. At the end of the 13th century, their wealth increased when a member of the family served as a bearer in a high ceremonial office. | The families wealth continued to increase during the 14th century until the gonfaliere Salvestro de' Medici was banished due to his brutal set of conditions to the people in the revolt of the Ciompi (popular revolt of wool carders in late medieval Florence). Due to this, the families wealth dropped dramatically. Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici (1360-1429) restored the families fortune when their political influence increased, and was made gonfaliere in 1421. | Giovanni's son, Cosimo de Medici (1389-1464), became the official founder of the Medici fortune. In 1434, he lead the government of Florence and held office in the highest magistry, where he managed banking, trade and industry. He was consistently successful in his works and had accomplished a lot for his city. He was greatly supported the artists and sculptors of his time and even built churches as well as provided the people with popes. After his death, he won the title of Pater Palrige which means "father of his country." The Medici family fortune continues as the family tree branches further and further... | $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

7: Printing Press | Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1440. He truly changed the lives of people in Europe and all over the world. The demand for books grew and the book trade was exploding. Before the printing press, multiple copies of manuscripts had to be hand made, a stressful task that could take years. The Gutenberg Bible, was the first mass produced book printed with a movable type printing press, which started the "Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of the printed book. | *6 | The Medici family had a large impact as they were heavily interested in the rebirth of Europe, and because of this, the Renaissance blossomed. | While the Medici family ruled Florence, they accomplished many successful acts. They spent money on their city, and with time and thought, had made it the most powerful as well, beautiful city. Florence became a popular place as it flourished in art. They supported artists by feeding, and educating them, as well as providing them with any other necessities. These artists just happened to be Donatello, and Michelangelo- very famous as well successful artists of the Renaissance. The Medici family was overall, extremely helpful.

8: Otto Man Turks | The powerful presence of the Ottoman Empire was felt in the West due to the capture of Constantinople in 1453. It was strongly felt by | *6 | the Muslims that Muhammad (Islam's prophet and founder) had stated that those would rule the world by taking over Constantinople. It became the capital of the Ottoman Empire, and was renamed Istanbul. | Arabic word ISLAM = submission | Muslim is one who submits the will of God. | Map of ... Byzantine Empire Ottoman Turks

9: *7 | The Ottomans and Europe | 1517- taken much of the Arab Middle East 1520- captured Belgrade and had taken over most of Hungary 1529- attempted to take over Vienna, but did not succeed in doing so | At this time, the Ottomans expanded their empire across North Africa to Algeria all the way to Yemen and Eritrea. he Ottoman Empire had reached the height of its power in the 16th and early 17th century. | The Ottomans were constantly considered to be aliens for many Europeans. Being Turks and Muslims they were unable to be a part of the West. | OTTOMAN ADVANCE

10: *8 | John Wyclif | John Wycliffe | At the end of the 13th century, the Western Christian Church was at the height of its power, as it owned a large sum of land in Europe. In the 14th century, the prestige of the papacy was brutally undermined when the pope moved his residence from Rome to Avignon in | (1324-1384) | France, As a result of this, society split in to French and anti-French, and there was a high need for two popes. Both groups felt that they had the higher power and to be the true source of authority. As these two groups constantly tried to outdo one other, a strong sense of religious insecurity fell over Europe, and without a doubt, the Church needed to be reformed and purified. | Wycliffe was a preacher as well writer, and even translated the bible to English for his countrymen, He was considered the greatest intellectual in England. | The pope was highly interested in Wycliffe because of his great aspects, and felt that he was the Church's only hope. Unfortunately, Wycliffe refused, as he followed God rather than the Pope's orders. | "No man should follow the Pope, nor no Saint that how is in heaven, but in much as he follows Christ." | In the end, Christ makes the overall decision---FAITH | "Belief teaches us that our blessed God suffers us not to be tempted more than we may."

11: *8 | *9 | John Hus | (1372-1415) | John Hus was a priest and dean of faculty of philosophy at the University of Prague, as well as a preacher in the Chapel of Bethlehem. This | John Hus was heavily influenced by John Wycliffe, and just as he believed, felt that the leader of the Church was Christ and not the Pope. Hus wanted to express his opinions and beliefs, but failed, as all his paperwork was burned. In 1415, Hus was ordered by the Council of Constance to be burned at the stake. This day serves as a holiday to the Czech republic. | clearly demonstrated that his hard work and preachings within the Church emphasized his determination in purity of life. | achieved fame as martyr to the cause of the church reform and Czech nationalism- lead his countrymen to a high sense of nationalism opposition to the Church. | He then | Jan Hus Died 6 July 1415 Konstanz, Germany

12: The Protestant Reformation | The Roman Catholic Church was widely known by many people in Western Europe. The Protestant Reformation was simply both a religious and political construction in the 16th century. The Reformation began as a crisis of faith from in Roman Catholic Church, which led to a challenge with the the power of the papacy (the office of the pope). Martin Luther, who was a monk from Germany, lead | the Reformation. He strongly believed that the Roman Catholic Church was severely corrupt and wished to reform it. He also felt that a reformation was in desperate need for many reasons: the language of the Bible (many people were unable to read Latin) and the selling of forgiveness to the Church. Luther was appalled by a common church practice of the day, the selling of indulgences. Luther sent a copy of his challenges to the bishop who sent it to Rome. | "All who call on God in true faith, earnestly from the heart, will certainly be heard, and will receive what they have asked and desired. " Martin Luther | *10

13: *11 | Martin Luther | Martin Luther was well educated as he graduated from the University of Erfurt when interested in biblical studies. From this, Luther was deeply religious, and after his visit to Rome in 1510, he became critical of the worldly papacy. From here he escaped from the teachings of the traditional Church - stressed reading the bible, close and personal relationship with God, challenged the ceremonies of the Church, and even questioned sacraments. | ----------------------------------------------------------------------- | - attacked the selling of indulgences and posted his thoughts and beliefs -Ninety-Five Theses on th door of the Wittenburg Church | Key Events | 1519: Luther challenges authority of the Pope and Church Council in debate 1520: Luther asks German princes to limit the power of the Church 1521: Luther banned from the Church and considered a heretic in January, and in April, attended the Diet of Worms but did not recant his views 1529: Word Protestant first appeared in reference to Lutheran Church | Bible is word of God and is the ultimate authority, not Pope

14: *12 | Johann Tetzel | Johann Tetzel was accused of selling indulgences. In 1517, Johann was in need to raise money for the papacy to finance the re-building of St. Peters Basilica in Rome. Martin Luther considered his actions evil and started to preach against Johann. | "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings, a soul from purgatory springs." - This was a quote by Johann Tetzel to persuade the people to pay to "get in to heaven."

15: *13 | The Sale of Indulgences | Indulgences were "Get out of Jail Free" cards issued by the Catholic Pope in Rome for certain 'financial' collections that allowed you to think you were buying your way in to Heaven... | You could sin as much as you wanted, only if you had the money | The selling of indulgences was simply a scam in 1517. An official church sanctioned release from temporal penalty given by priests for sins committed. This soon came to be associated with assisting the deceased (purgatory). It was told to the people that by doing so, would earn them a spot in heaven, as well as quicken their entrance.

16: *14 | Ulrich Zwingli | Ulrich Zwingli was a Swiss religious reformer. He believed that Eucharist ceremony was a very symbolic act where | Luther felt that it was as | being spiritual with a bodily presence. Ulrich was established in Zurich in 1523, while he was supported by the city through his expedition through rigid laws which involved the behaviour of the public. | Ulrich is historically significant as he became the center of the Swiss Reformation. | 1484-1531 | John Calvin | 1509-564 | John Calvin played a very important role in the second generation Protestant Reformation. He was very interested in, and highly educated with humanistic writing and the accomplishments of Martin Luther. It was not until 1533 when he had a "Crisis of Faith," and moved to Geneva, that | adopted Protestantism in 1535.

17: *15 | Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536 | A work on the new Protestant faith, which can be identified as the most important work of the Protestant Reformation... | *Salvation was given from faith not by the good works *God expected man to be civil, humble, and obedient * God determines those who are to be saved although everyone is expected to live a good life (Predestination) | ...

18: Counter Reformation | The Counter - Reformation was the movement within the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th and 17th centuries that tried to eliminate abuses within that church and to respond to the Protestant Reformation. The Counter Reformation is simply seen as the Roman Catholic reaction to the Protestant Reformation. | The Reformation dramatically changed Europe,as there was now Lutherans, Calvinists, Anabaptists, and Anglicans as well with Christians. | *16

19: *17 | There was a sudden social change as a result of the Protestant Reformation. There was bible reading and prayer now in the household- outside of the Church. Latin and Greek were now being taught as well as new literature. There was also a transformation fo the Catholic Church due to the crisis posed by the spread of Protestantism. | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Pope Paul III | Pope Paul III was born on February 29th 1468, and died on November 10th 1549. HIs name was Alessandro Farnese, and was Pope to the Roman Catholic Church (1534-1549). He was welcomed to the throne following the uncertainties in the Church due to the Protestant Reformation. | "There is no redemption from hell." Pope Paul III

20: *18 | The most important effect of the Reformation of the Roman Catholic Church is the Society of Jesus, more known as, Jesuit Order. This was founded by a Spanish nobleman named Ignatius Loyola. This man left his life in the military to transform in to a solider of God himself. During this transformation, he created spiritual books presenting that those can shape their behaviour with simple discipline and everyday spiritual devotion to God and the Church. Education became severely important!

21: *19 | Council of Trent | States that bishops are to reside in their own dioceses and that there must be an end put to the sale of indulgences. The Parish clergy must also be more disciplined.

22: *20 | Age of Discovery | Henry the Navigator | Prince Henry was a Portugal explorer who one his title because of his many expeditions over the seas involving exploration and expansion. He was born in 1394 and died in 1460. In 1414, he traveled overseas to Africa where he created a school where mariners and cartographers were able to be trained. The power of his country was widened through trade. From this, gold was acquired from Africa, as well, spices from India. A very important detail was that religious views from Portugal (Christianity), were extended and introduced to Muslim Africa. | 1394-1460

23: *21 | Christopher Columbus | Christopher Columbus was a Spanish explorer who was sponsored by the King and Queen of Spain in 1492. This was only the start of the many centuries of exploring and the construction of the American empire. Columbus had found what the Europeans claimed to be called "The New World," (America) in 1492. In 1496, he conquered the island of Hispaniola, where gold was found!!! | 1451-1506

24: *22 | New spain | In 1500, Mexico was ruled by the Aztec empire. In 1519 Cortes, a Spanish conquistador arrived in Mexico with many men who had crossbows, guns, as well as horses. In three years time, the empire was conquered. The Aztec capital was put down, and a new Spanish city- Mexico was put in replace. Spain felt their empire was an extension of the mother country as a benefit. Spain had become dependent upon metals that were being mined in the New World. Colonial territories became part of the wealth of the nation. Expensive metals, raw materials, and spices were imported. Economies of dependency were led to. Restrictions were imposed on the colonies that would prevent competition with the mother country. Spain and Portugal were the first to use this system.

25: *23

26: *24 | Age of Religious Wars | 1555-1648 | French Wars of Religion in 1562-1598 Three powerful Catholic families: Guises, Bourbons and Montmorency- Chatillons families for political control of France after the death of Henry II. | The dominance belonged to the Guis family. The Huguenots were the French Calvinists and took up a small spot in the population. About 50% of the nobility was Protestant in hopes of asserting their independence from the monarchy.

27: *25 | The Civil Wars began in 1562, when Catherine Medici had extended public worship for the Huguenots. The Guise immediately realized this strategy and as a result, the Duke of Guise attacked a Protestant Church during a service. | ------------------------------------------------------------ | Philip ii | 1527 | 1598 | In the 1560's, during the Revolt in the Netherlands (1566-1609), Philip II of Spain wished the centralize his power, and end the local autonomy of the commercial towns as well, provinces. Philip was in support of the Protestant Reformation The taxation had went to Spain, and there was a loss of the local autonomy. As a reaction to this, the Dutch Catholic Church reorganized Spanish lines. Philip responded by sending the Duke of Alba with 100,000 other men to restore order. New taxes were introduced, as well as Inquisition. | An inquisition is a special Church institution for suppressing heresy

28: *26 | Philip's English War | The 1580's were a time of war For Philip II. Elizabeth I aimed her foreign policy to strengthen England and support Protestantism. The Pope hoped to encourage the Catholic War against the heavy state by excommunicating Elizabeth for heresy. | After the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Philip had openly supported the Huguenots. | In 1585 he sent English troops to the Netherlands in Spain and supported piracy against the Spanish flees from New Spain.

29: *27 | Visual Representing the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre | Thirty Years War 1618-1648 | The causes of the Thirty Years War was Hapsburg HRE wished to centralize power. As well, in 1617, the Catholic Archduke Ferdinand became King and in1618, revoked the rights of Protestants. | A series of wars in central Europe beginning in 1618 that stemmed from conflict between Protestants and Catholics and political struggles between the Holy Roman Empire and other powers.

30: *28 | Absolutism | This term became extremely significant to this time in European history. | Absolutism is a form of governance where a single ruler has complete power.

31: *29 | Louis XIV of France | Historians considered Louis XIV to be a clear example of absolutism

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