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Hudson Project_BANDMAN

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FC: RACHEL BANDMAN | comparative government


2: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA | ________ | history: Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783 | constitution: ratification completed by nine states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789 | government type: federal republic limited political parties: Democratic, Republican, Green, Libertarian | market economy: imports: agricultural products, industrial supplies, capital goods (computers, telecommunications equipment, motor vehicle parts, office machines, electric power machinery), consumer goods (automobiles, clothing, medicines, furniture, toys) exports: agricultural products (soybeans, fruit, corn), industrial supplies (organic chemicals), capital goods (transistors, aircraft, motor vehicle parts, computers, telecommunications equipment), consumer goods (automobiles, medicines)

3: "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union" | executive branch: the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with Senate approval elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by a college of representatives who are elected directly from each state; president and vice president serve four-year terms | legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of the senate: 100 seats, 2 members elected from each state by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years house of representatives: 435 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve two-year terms | judicial branch: US Supreme Court (consists of 9 justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices) | judge selection and term of office: president nominates, and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoints Supreme Court justices; justices appointed for life

4: history: The United Kingdom has historically played a leading role in developing parliamentary democracy and in advancing literature and science. At its zenith in the 19th century, the British Empire stretched over one-fourth of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two world wars and the Irish Republic's withdrawal from the union. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous European nation. | government type: constitutional monarchy and Commonwealth realm limited | constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice | political parties: Conservative, Alliance Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Labor Party, Liberal Democrats, Party of Wales, Scottish National Party, Sinn Fein, Social Democratic and Labor Party, Ulster Unionist Party, United Kingdom Independent Party | imports: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels; foodstuffs exports: manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco | mixed economy

5: United Kingdom | ______ | executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II; Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES head of government: Prime Minister David CAMERON cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister | legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of House of Lords; (780 seats; consisting of approximately 667 life peers, 88 hereditary peers, and 25 clergy) and House of Commons (650 seats; members elected by popular vote) elections: House of Lords - no elections | judicial branch highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 12 justices including the court president and deputy president) judge selection and term of office: judge candidates selected by an independent committee, followed by their recommendations to the prime minister, and appointed by The Queen

6: history: Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. | government type: federal republic limited constitution: several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times | political parties: Citizen's Movement, Institutional Revolutionary Party, Labor Party, Mexican Green Ecological Party, National Action Party, New Alliance Party, Party of the Democratic Revolution | imports: metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts exports: manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton | free market economy

7: mexico | judicial: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 21 ministers or judges and 5 supernumerary judges) judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president and approved by the Senate; judges serve for life | executive: chief of state and head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term | legislative: bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; members to serve three-year terms)

8: CHINA | history: After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. | government type: Communist state unlimited constitution: several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times | political parties: Chinese Communist Party (eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP) | command economy imports: electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans exports: electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, radio telephone handsets, textiles, integrated circuits

9: executive: chief of state: President XI Jinping; Vice President LI Yuanchao head of government: Premier LI Keqiang, Executive Vice Premier ZHANG Gaoli, Vice Premier LIU Yandong, Vice Premier MA Kai, Vice Premier WANG Yang cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress elections: president and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) | legislative: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms) | judicial: highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress; term limited to two consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the People's National Congress

10: COPY | history: The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but were not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center. | government type: constitutional monarchy limited constitution: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962; amended 2002 (2013) | mixed market economy imports: fuel, food, manufactured goods exports: fish, betel nut, kava | political parties: Horizon Monaco, Renaissance, Union Monegasque

11: MONACO | executive: chief of state: Prince ALBERT II head of government: Minister of State Michel ROGER cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch elections: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government | judicial: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance | legislative: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members elected by list majority system, 8 by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)

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