FC: Intro to Ancient Rome
1: Table of contents | How Rome got its name - pg. 1 The Roman Empire - pg. 2 Who were the Roman Emperors -pg 3 Architecture - pg 4 Aqueducts - pg 5 The Coliseum - pg 6 Roads - pg 7 Baths - pg 8 The Pantheon - pg 9 Circus Maximus - pg 10 The Forum - pg 11 Religion - pg 12 Maps - pg 13 The fall of Rome - pg 14 Early Rome - pg 15 Rome at its largest - pg 16 Roman Empire after the fall - pg 17 Germanic Tribe - pg 18 How Rome was ruled - pg 19
2: How Rome got its name.
3: Rhea was married to Mars, the Roman god of war. Rhea had twin sons. She loved her boys, but there were plots afoot by other gods and goddesses to harm her father, herself, her husband, and her children. To protect the boys, she set them adrift on the river, hoping someone would find them. Who would not love such beautiful boys? Sure enough, first they were found by a she-wolf who fed them. Then a shepherd and his wife adopted the boys. As the twins grew older, they decided they did not want to take care of sheep. They wanted to be kings. They decided to build a city on the shores of the Tiber. They both wanted to be the only king. They quarreled. In a fit of rage, Romulus picked up a rock, killed his brother, and made himself king.
4: Roman Empire
5: In the beginning was the census. Every five years, each male Roman citizen had to register in Rome for the census. In this he had to declare his family, wife, children, slaves and riches. Should he fail to do this, his possessions would be confiscated and he would be sold into slavery. But registration meant freedom. A master wishing to free his slave needed only to enter him in the censor's list as a citizen Throughout the entire republican era, registration in the census was the only way that a Roman could ensure that his identity and status as a citizen were recognized. Fathers registered their sons, employers their freedmen. Primarily the census served to count the number of citizens and to assess the potential military strength and future tax revenue. Most important, the census transformed the city into a political and military community. But the census performed a highly symbolical function. To the Romans the census made them more than a mere crowd, or barbarian rabble. It made them a populus, a people, capable of collective action. To the Roman the census was one of the foundation stones of their civilization.
6: Roman Emperors | Gaius Julius Octavius - Augustus born on 23 September 63 BC in Rome, son of Gaius Octavius and Aita, niece of Julius Caesar, who adopted him as his heir. Consul 43, 33, 31-23 BC. Effectively became emperor in 27 BC, with extended powers in 23 BC. Married (1) Claudia, (2) Scribonia (one daughter; Julia), (3) Drusilia (one son; Tiberius). Died at Nola, 19 August AD 14. Deified on 17 September AD 14. | Tiberius Claudius Nero born on 16 November 42 BC, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero (d. 33 BC) and Livia Drusilla (c.58 BC - AD 29), who married Augustus in 39 BC. Became emperor in AD 14. Married (1) Vipsania (one son, Drusus 13 BC - AD23); (2) Julia, daughter of Augustus. Died at Misenum, 16 March AD 37.
7: Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus at Antium in AD 37, son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul in AD 32, and Agrippina, sister of Caigula, who then married Crispus Passienus and, later, in AD 49, her uncle Claudius. Became emperor in AD 54. Married (1)Octavia; (2) Poppaea Sabina (one daughter, Claudia Augusta, who died in infancy); (Statilia Messalina. Committed suicide in AD 68. | Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus born 17 November AD 9 at Reate. Served in Thrace, Crete, Cyrene, Germany, Britain and Africa. Military commander in Palestine AD 66-69. Became emperor in AD 69. Married Flavia Domitilla, who died AD 65 (two sons, Titus and Domitian, and one daughter Domitilla). Died on 24 June AD 79. Deified in AD 79
9: Many European cities still bear reminders of the power of ancient Rome, and throughout the western world the influence of Roman power is still manifest. Architecture was crucial to the success of Rome. Both formal architecture like temples and basilicas and in its utilitarian buildings like bridges and aqueducts played important roles in unifying the empire. The construction of a roads with bridges helped communication across the far flung empire. Aqueducts like the so-called Pont du Gard enabled the Romans to provide adequate water supply to its cities. City walls like the one in Autun in central France protected the Roman cities. Cities provided a network of administrative centers and acted as visible symbols of power throughout the Empire. Many European cities and towns, most notably London and Paris, were founded by the Romans. The buildings in these cities directly and indirectly served Roman power. A building type known as the basilica served administrative functions. The basilica acted like a town hall or court house in American cities. The so-called Basilica Ulpia constructed by the Emperor Trajan at the beginning of the second century AD can be used to exemplify this category of building. A characteristic element of these basilicas was a projection called an apse which served as the seat of the magistrate responsible for dispensing the law.Accompanying the magistrate would be an image of the Emperor, the source of the law. A sixth century illustration of Christ being judged shows the seated Pontius Pilate flanked by images presumably of the emperor. The semi-circular line above the scene is best explained by seeing this as an echo of the form of the apse. For a citizen of the empire the basilica in a Roman city conveyed the idea of Roman authority. The associations with authority was an important rationale for the use of the basilica type as the standard form of the Christian church from the time of the Emperor Constantine
11: The great and highly advanced Roman waterway system known as the Aqueducts, are among the greatest achievements in the ancient world. The running water, indoor plumbing and sewer system carrying away disease from the population within the Empire wasn't surpassed in capability until very modern times. The Aqueducts, being the most visible and glorious piece of the ancient water system, stand as a testament to Roman engineering. Some of these ancient structures are still in use today in various capacities. The aqueducts were built from a combination of stone, brick and the special volcanic cement pozzuolana. While their visible remains leave a definite impression, the great bulk of the Roman waterway system ran below ground. Channels bored through rock, or dug below the surface carried water where it was convenient and possible. Of the approximately 260 miles in the aqueduct system, only 30 miles consisted of the visible, mammoth arched structures. The aqueducts were built only to carry the flow of water in areas where digging, burrowing, or surface grades presented problems, such as valleys. The entire system relied upon various gradients and the use of gravity to maintain a continuous flow; and the engineering at the time was remarkable. Without the aqueducts it would've been impossible to maintain the flow of water at the proper grades required.
12: The Colosseum
13: The Colosseum was built of blocks of travertine stone extracted from the quarries of Albulae near Tivoli and brought to Rome by a wide road specially constructed for the purpose. The amphitheater forms an oval 527 meters ( 1,729) in circumference with diameters of 189 and 156 meters (615 and 510 ft). The height of the four-storied wall is 48 meters (157 ft). The Colosseum contained 45,000 sitting places and 5,000 standing places. The broad paved circular piazza that surrounded the amphitheater allowed easy access to every part of the faade. There were 80 entrance arches, of these the four at the extremities of the major and minor axes were forbidden to the public and not numbered. The major axis entrances gave direct unrestricted access to the arena itself. In contrast both of the minor axis entrances gave direct access to special reserved boxes.
15: Rome made a great deal of money from trade in Europe. Some of this trade involved transport by sea. More frequently, the Romans used roads. Also with so much of Western Europe conquered by the Romans, the Romans needed roads to move their troops around quickly. Poorly built roads would not help this. When the Romans arrived in England, they found no roads to use. Instead they had to make do with tracks used by the Britons. It was not unusual for these tracks to be in very poor condition as they were usually on high ground and open to all types of weather. A good road system also made it easier for the emperors to control their empire as messages and orders could be sent quickly. Roman roads were famed for being straight and well made. However, the Romans usually built roads around a natural obstacle rather than go through it. The Romans did not have a compass or maps to help them build roads. How did they manage it? Surveyors used a tool called a groma.
17: Roman houses had water supplied via lead pipes. However, these pipes were taxed according to their size, so many houses had just a basic supply and could not hope to rival a bath complex. Therefore for personal hygiene, people went to the local baths. However, the local bath complex was also a gathering point and served a very useful community and social function. Here people could relax, keep clean and keep up with the latest news. Taking a bath was not a simple chore. There was not one bath to use in a large complex such as the one at Bath. A visitor could use a cold bath (the frigidarium), a warm bath (the tepidarium) and a hot bath (the caldarium). A visitor would spend some of his time in each one before leaving. A large complex would also contain an exercise area (the palaestra), a swimming pool and a gymnasium. One of the public baths at Pompeii contains two tepidariums and caldariums along with a plunge pool and a large exercise area. The building of a bath complex required excellent engineering skills. Baths required a way of heating up water. This was done by using a furnace and the hypocaust system carried the heat around the complex.
18: The Pantheon
19: With its thick brick walls and large marble columns, the Pantheon makes an immediate impression on visitors. But the most remarkable part of the building is the more than 43 meter high dome. It was the largest dome in the world until 1436 when the Florence Cathedral was constructed. At the top of the dome is a large opening, the oculus, which was the only source of light. The front portico has three rows of columns; the first row has eight columns while the other two have four each. A huge bronze door gives access to the cylindrical building. Its diameter equals the interior height of 43.3 meters.
20: Circus Maximus
21: Chariot races were one of the Roman's most popular forms of entertainment. Romulus, the first of Rome's seven kings, is said to have held chariot races. The origins of the Circus Maximus go back to the 6th century BC when Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth king of Rome, created a track between the Palatine and Aventine hills. The first permanent starting gates were created in 329 BC. In 174 BC the gates were rebuilt and seven wooden eggs were placed on top of the spina, the central wall in the arena. The eggs were used to count the number of laps; after each lap one egg was removed. In 33 BC seven bronze dolphins were added to the spina for the same purpose.
22: The Forum
23: The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum) was the central area of the city around which ancient Rome developed. Here was where commerce, business, prostitution, cult and the administration of justice took place. Space where religious activities were conducted and the communal hearth of the city. The Roman Forum was designed by the architect Vitruvius with proportions 3:2 (length to width). For centuries, the Forum Romanum was the site of the city's most important public buildings, such as the Arch of Septimius Severus, built in AD203 and the Roman Forum Rostra or platforms for public speeches. The reliefs on the triple arch represented many of Rome's victories over oriental tribes and the Rostra was decorated with prows of warships captured during battles. The Roman Forum became the spectacular showcase of the Roman Empire filled with beautiful statues and architecture.
25: The origins of the Roman pantheon began with the small farming community that made up the ancient village of Rome. The foundations of the mythology included nameless and faceless deities that lended support to the community while inhabiting all objects and living things. Numen, as the belief in a pantheistic inhabitation of all things is called, would later take root in more clearly defined system of gods, but early on this belief that everything was inhabited by numina was the prevalent system.
27: In its more than a thousand years of history, Rome spread from what was once a single small settlement on the Tiber. First Roma spread to the surrounding territory, then all of Italy, and finally the Roman Empire covered most of western Europe, north Africa, Greece, and Asia Minor.
28: The Fall of Rome | Rome had quite a run. First a monarchy, then a republic, then an empire – all roads led to Rome for over 1200 years. In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge. During the Imperial period, Rome had some wonderful emperors. Rome also suffered from a series of bad, corrupt and just plain crazy emperors. There were lots of reasons why Rome fell. a. Problems towards the end of the Empire included b. The empire was too large to govern effectively. c .The army was not what it used to be. There was corruption in the military - dishonest generals and non-Roman soldiers. d. Civil wars broke out between different political groups. e. Emperors were often selected by violence, or by birth, so the head of government was not always a capable leader. f. The increased use of slaves put many Romans out of work g. The rich became lazy and showed little interest in trying to solve Rome problems.
29: h. The poor were overtaxed and overworked. They were very unhappy. i. Prices increased, trade decreased. j. The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. That made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively. The Empire starting shrinking. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons and other barbarian tribes overran the empire. The ancient Romans tried to solve some of their problems by splitting the Roman Empire in half, hoping that would make the empire easier to manage. Each side had an emperor, but the emperor in charge was the emperor of the western half, the half that included the city of Rome. The Western Roman Empire did not do well. Instead of getting stronger, they became weaker. By 400 AD, it was pretty much over. The Huns, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, Visigoths – any of these barbarian tribes might have been the group that finally brought Rome down. They were all attacking various pieces of the Western Roman Empire. In 476 AD, the Visigoths sacked Rome. Europe entered the Dark Ages. The Easter Roman Empire received a new name – the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire did fine. It lasted for another 1000 years
30: Early Rome
31: Early Rome was considered to be an Italian civilization, which occurred in the 8th century B.C. It eventually became the biggest and most powerful empire in the world.
32: Rome at its Largest
33: Rome was powerful for many reasons. Three of them are they used the republic form of government, they gave Roman citizenship to conquered citizens, and they had a gigantic army with the legion as their military formation. All these and many more things made Rome so powerful.
34: Rome after the fall
35: Immediately after the removal of the last emperor, absolutely nothing. Rome itself was rather exhausted after civil war of 470-472, and population was rather happy when Odoacer took direct control over the city. The new Germanic landlords where not interested to destroy the city, but rather use it as center for its new, consolidated power, and were busy distributing positions and wealth among its army. The role of the Senate increased, as there was no emperor to interfere, and Rome was still the largest city of the Western Europe. All city functions were still running, the inertia of the population was slow to change from their established everyday functions. Rome was still important city when the Ostrogothic Kingdom was established. It was period of stability that lasted for several decades. The city itself had 300,000 citizens and the Senate and city magistrate worked smoothly. The real blow Rome and Italy received with the outbreak of Justinian's Gothic War that whipped out all classical culture left from the Roman times. Rome was several times besieged and the population was starved and its aqueducts destroyed. The population of Italy dropped from 11 millions to 3 and Rome became small provincial city with 25,000 souls. All representative of the classical culture, ingenuity, learning, skills, and technology was gone with this war, and Rome became a city dominated by Papacy, especially under Pope Gregory I
36: Germanic tribe
37: The origins of the Germanic tribes is lost in the sands of time. What little is known is based upon linguistic evidence. The Germanic languages belong to the Indo-European family of languages that span Eurasia from Ireland on the west to India on the east. The origin of the Indo-European languages is believed to have been in the merger of three peoples in the region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. One of the three excelled in warfare, one in agriculture and one in metal-working. The synthesis of these three strengths produced a folk that spread east and west. The western branch splits into the ancestors of the Baltic, the Celtic, the Germanic and the Slavic tribes as well as a welter of smaller groupings such as those of the Latins and Greeks. The languages of the Germanic tribes underwent a systematic sound change that distinguished them from the languages of the other branches.
38: How Rome was ruled | Ancient Rome was a republic. This consisted of many different classes of men. There were to consuls, who acted as people with half the power as presidents, with the ability to veto, 300 patricians who made up the senate and were mainly second class, and if a decision was not able to be made between the consuls, a dictator was chosen to rule for a short six month term.