FC: River Valley Civilizations By: Jabien Broussard
1: Table of contents -Mesopotamia pages 1-4 -Egypt pages 5-8 -China pages 9-11 -Indus pages 12-14
2: Mesopotamia -The Hammurabi code is known for its strict rules and consequences. -Mesopotamian people invented many things out of copper, bronze, and gold. Things like armor and weapons. -Mesopotamia encloses the land between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. -Mesopotamian people were polytheistic, meaning believing in more than one god. -The earliest written language in Mesopotamian was Sumerian.It was cuneiform which means "wedge shape." -There were three different social groups. There was the top where the rich, priests,
3: and soldiers were, then there was the middle where the merchants, teachers, and farmers were, then there was the lower level where the slaves were. -When city-states began to grow, there were fights over land and canals. -Sumer created the 60 second time unit which is still used today. -When the rivers flood, they would produce silt, which is a dark rich soil. -Mesopotamia is located in present day Iraq and has very limited natural resources.
5: Egypt -The pharaohs forced the slaves, or lowest people in the social classes to build tombs. -Using their advance knowledge of geometry, a pyramid seemed like the perfect structure to make tombs - When a body was mummified, its brain was removed through one of its nostrils and its intestines were also removed and placed in jars called canopic jars. Each organ was placed in its own jar. The only internal organ that was not removed was the heart, because Egyptians considered it to be the seat of the soul. -Egyptians were monotheistic and believed that Pharaohs were gods in human form. -
6: - Another interesting characteristic of the Egyptians was their written language, Hieroglyphics. It was a system of symbols and pictures. The only way that we were able to decipher it was with the help of the Rosetta stone. -When the Nile river flooded it left behind a dark, fertile soil called "silt". - The Egyptians believed that the makeup had healing power. Originally the makeup was used as a protection from the sun rather than for adornment. - Egyptians believed that the earth was flat and round and that the Nile flowed through the center of it.
7: -Egyptian soldiers were used as an internal police force. Additionally, they collected taxes for the Pharaoh. -While the use of antibiotics did not begin in the 20th century, early folk medicine included the use of moldy foods or soil for infections. In ancient Egypt, for example, infections were treated with moldy bread.
9: China - The River Valley in China was the Yellow River Valley. The Yellow River, also known as the Huang Ho, is the central point in this civilization -The Yellow River was unpredictable and flooded violently. Even though this sounds bad, the Chinese learned to live with it. -The Chinese advanced in pottery, fireworks, water transportation and harvesting. These advancements lead to more and more trading. -The social classes in China were different from the Egyptians In that the Chinese didn't have priests or a strong military at the top.
10: - They had Artisans, craft workers and then merchants, followed by peasant farmers and slaves. This segregation seemed to work for them in that the civilization grew and continued to expand. - The development of city-states was characteristic of the rule of various dynasties throughout Chinese history. -The Yellow River is the northernmost of the major Chinese rivers. -The yellow river gets its name and color from the yellow silt it picks up. -Sometimes called the "River of Sorrow," the Yellow River is one of the world's most dangerous and destructive rivers.
12: Indus -Indians established Harappan culture in Indus Valley Civilization. -Two major religions, Buddhism and Jainism were established in India in 500 and 600 BC. -Between about 1500 and 1000 B.C., as the great cities of the Indus region crumbled into ruins. -The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan. -A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centers in the region.
13: -The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. -Most city dwellers appear to have been traders or artisans, who lived with others pursuing the same occupation in well-defined neighborhoods. -Aside from the subsistence of agriculture and hunting, the Indus people supported themselves by trading goods. -Through trade, the Indus Civilization expanded its culture, coming into regular contacts with far away lands. -A number of typical Indus seals have also been found in Sumer, seals dating back to between 2300 and 2000 BC.