FC: River Valley Civilizations By: Kayli McCrary Mrs.Bartlett 4th period
1: Table of Contents pg. 2&3 Mesopotamia pg.4&5 Egypt pg. 6&7 Indus pg. 8&9 China
3: 1.The Mesopotamian religion didn’t believe in after life. Mesopotamians believed that all good and bad people go under ground as ghosts. 2.Mesopotamia invented the wheel, sailboat, and plow. 3.Priests controlled the irrigation system and also had more power than the King and Queen. 4.“Mesopotamia “is originally a Greek name that means, “Land between the rivers.” 5.Mesopotamia lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. 6.The Mesopotamians writing system was called cuneiform. 7.The highest social level in Mesopotamia was the King’s and Priests, the middle was the normal or average people and the very bottom was slaves. 8.Each Mesopotamian city-state had there own god. 9.Mesopotamia was the very first civilization ever. 10.Mesopotamian religion believed the only reason that Mesopotamians were on earth was to be a servant of the gods.
5: 1.Egypt has one of the rare north flowing rivers, the Nile. 2.Egyptians had a mummification process that took about 70 days. 3.Egyptians built pyramids. Egyptians also created levers, ramps, and rollers. 4.In Egypt government revolved around the Pharaoh who was thought to be a living god. 5.Egyptian religion was based on polytheism. Egyptians believed in as many as 2000 gods and goddesses. 6.Egyptians wrote using hieroglyphics. 7.At the bottom of the Egyptian social classes were soldiers, farmers, and tomb builders. Then there were craftsmen. After this came scribes. Then Priests, Engineers, and Doctors. Then there were High Priests and Nobles. Then the Viziers. Finally, at the very top were the Pharaoh’s. 8.Most Egyptians worked as field hands, farmers, craftsmen, or scribes. 9.The yearly flooding of the Nile River enriched the soil and brought good harvests. 10.The early Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert instead of using mummification.
7: 1.Indus is between the Indus and Ganges rivers. Each river is an important link from the inside of the subcontinent to the sea. 2.The Indus people built modern looking plumbing systems. The toilets were neatly built of brick and had a wooden seat. Pipes connected to each restroom system and carried wastes into an underground sewage system. 3.Religious artifacts found in Indus link to modern day Hindu culture. 4.The Indus people had a written language called Harrapan. The Harrapan language has been impossible to interpret because the Harrapan language has no inscriptions that are bilingual. 5.The Indus people built strong levees to keep water out of their cities. When the levees did not work the Indus people built human made islands to raise the cities above possible flood waters. 6.The housing in the Harrapan culture suggests that there were not great social divisions. Artifacts such as clay and wooden children’s toys suggest a relatively prosperous society that could afford to produce non essential goods. 7.The Harrapans created a thriving trade with people in the region. The Indus River provided an excellent means of transportation for trade goods. 8.Around 1750 B.C., the quality of building in the Indus valley cities declined. Gradually the cities began to decay. 9.Indus faced many of the same challenges as the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. 10.In the beginning of Indus organization was mainly tribal and the head of the tribe was supposed to be the Raja (king) although there was no true concept of what a king was at that time.
9: 1.There are two major river systems in China. One is known as the Yellow river, which is found in the north. The second is the Yangtze River, which flows east to the Yellow Sea. 2.The Shang society was sharply divided between nobles and peasants. Warrior-nobles headed by a king ruled the Shang. 3.There was a king but the noble families owned the land. The nobles governed the scattered villages within the Shang land. 4.In China, everyone was closely linked to religion. The Chinese did not believe in many gods but in many spirits. The Chinese believed these spirits had the power to bring good fortune or disaster and the spirits demanded attention and respect. 5.In Chinese writing each character stands for one syllable or unit of language. The only disadvantage to the Chinese system of writing is you had to memorize 1500 characters just to be barely literate. 6.The Chinese introduced a variety of new technological devices such as roads and canals, coined money, and blast furnaces that produced cast iron. 7.Around 1027 B.C. the Zhou overthrew the Shang and established there own dynasty. The Zhou culture was a lot like the Shang so there was not a big cultural change. 8.In the Chinese family, when a girl was between the ages of 13 and 16 years old, her marriage was arranged and she moved into the house of her husband. 9.In a Chinese family the most important virtue was respect for your parents. The older men in all families controlled the family’s property and made important decisions. 10.Only about 10% of China’s land is suitable for farming. The North China Plain is China’s farming heartland.