FC: River Valley Civilizations By: LaDasia Meeks Miss Bartlett 4th period World History
1: Table of Contents Pages 2-3 Mesopotamia Pages 4-5 Egypt Pages 6-7 Indus Pages 8-9 China
2: Mesopotamia | 10 Facts
3: Government: The Sumer's earliest government were controlled by the temple priests. Technology: They used arithmetic and geometry in order to build city walls,buildings, irrigation systems, and survey flooded fields. Geography: The word Mesopotamia in Greek means" land between rivers". The rivers framing Mesopotamia are the Tigris and Euphrates. Religion: They believed in many gods which is called polytheism. Writing: Cuneiform was the Sumerian's form of writing. It consisted of wedge-shaped symbols, invented around 3000 B.C. Social classes: Sumerian society consisted of kings, landholders,and some priest made up the higher level.Wealthy merchants ranked next the lowest level was slaves. Laws: Due to Hammurabi's code they had a total of 282 laws.EX: law #196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. Fun Facts: -The rulers usually passed their power on to their sons, who eventually passed it on to their sons known as a dynasty. -The Sumer's civilizations which consisted of advanced cities,specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced cities later developed into cities. -After 2500 B.C. metalworkers turned into bronze which was known as the Bronze Age.
4: Egypt 10 Facts
5: Government: Egyptians were controlled by pharaohs which ruled as gods they were also known as a theocracy. Technology: The Egyptians developed a calendar to help them keep track of the time between the floods and plan their planting seasons. Geography: Egypt is home of the Nile River it provides fertile land(when river overflows)- produces silt. Religion: Early Egyptians were polytheistic, believing in many gods.The most important gods were Re, the sun god and Osiris, god of the dead. The most important goddess was Isis, who represented the ideal mother and wife. Writing: They quickly developed a flexible writing system known as hieroglyphics, this term comes from the Greek words hieros and gluph, meaning "scared carving". Social Classes: The kings, queen, and royal families formed the top below them were members of the upper class landowners,priests,and army commanders.Then middle class which included merchants and artisans and last were slaves it was just like a pyramid. Enviornmental Challenges: Even though the Nile was as regular as clockwork, even so, life in Egypt had its risks of flooding. Fun Facts: -Egyptians could marry or succeed into a higher level of social classes. -They made their paper out of a plant called a papyrus. -Today, a pharaoh hound puppy is bred for competition and can cost up to $1,500.
6: Indus 10 Facts
7: Government: The Indus were a theocracy, Priests likely prayed for a good harvest and safety from floods. Technology: The Indus came up with a sewage system and their own written language. Geography: The worlds tallest mountains to the north and a large desert to the east helped protect the Indus Valley from invasion. The mountains guard an enormous flat and fertile plain formed by two rivers- the Indus and the Ganges. Religion: Figures show what may be early representations of Shiva, a major Hindu god. Other figures relate to a mother goddess, fertility images, and the worship of the bull. Writing: The Harrappan language is found on stamps and seals made of trading pottery and tools. Social Classes: At the top were gods and priests everybody else was about the same. Eniornmental Challenges: The cycle of wet and dry seasons brought by the monsoon winds was unpredictable. Fun Facts: - The Indus and Ganges and the lands they water make up a large area that stretches 1,700 miles. -Seasonal winds called monsoons dominate India's climate. -Some seals portray beasts with parts of several different animals- for example, the head of a man, an elephant trunk and tusks, horns of a bull, and the rump of a tiger.
8: China 10 Facts
9: Government: The Chinese civilization was ruled by different Dynasties like the Shangs and the Zhous. Technology: They built roads and canals, coined money was introduced, and blast furnaces the produced cast iron were developed. Geography: The Haung He, also known as the Yellow River is found in the north. In central Ching, the Chang Jiang, also called the Yangtze, flows east to the Yellow Sea. Religion:The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring fortune or disaster. Writing: The Chinese method of writing , each character generally stands for one syllable or unit of language. Social Classes: Shang Society was sharply divided between nobles and peasants. Enviornmental Challenges: The Haung He's floods could be disastrous. Sometimes floods devoured whole villages, earning the river the nickname " China's Sorrow". Fun Facts: - The Yellow River(Haung He) got its name from the huge amounts of yellowish deposists (loess) -The plain, known as the North China Plain, is China's heartland. -Chinese coins were made of bronze. Their shape resembles a digging tool such as a hoe or spade.