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Litbook - Page Text Content

S: Lit 12 Scrapbook Project

FC: Literature 12 Scrapbook Project | Dennis Hong Block G

2: Beowulf | Hero's Bro-code - Be loyal to your leader and tribe - Have fierce personal valor - Be generous - Be aware of life's shortness and fate - Be Boastful - Appreciate beauty in art - Have a sense of justice | KENNINGS | a type of riddling metaphor enjoyed by Anglo-Saxons | in Example... Ring-Giver = Hrothgar Protector of Men = Beowulf Shepherd of Evil =Grendel War-net = chain armor Sea-bench = beach Heather stepper = horse Battle flasher = sword Candle of Heave = sun | the first page of Beowulf

3: Drinking Horn | Mead: | a powerful brew fermented with honey | Mead hall: where large feasts were given to celebrate great victories or hunts | Helmet, Sutton Hoo | 'fate will unwind as it must' - Beowulf | Wyrd was a goddess of Fate, and was part of the Pagan beliefs. The Anglo-Saxons simply accepted events as pre-determined and did not lament them.

4: The Canterbury Tales | (the Prologue) | during the Prologue Chaucer provides the setting and introduces his characters in a detached manner | Medieval Tapestry | the Knight | A distinguished gentleman and a member of the upper class. He follows the code of chivalry, valuing honour, courtesy, and loyalty among other traits. He was a true upholder of this code, always modest and never bad-mouthing others. He has just returned from service to set out on the pilgrimage. | 'Gentle Lion' - Compressed paradox (two words in opposition) that characterizes the Knight

5: by: Geoffrey Chaucer | European Feudalism | THE Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories told by various members of English society as they go on a pilgrimage to the Canterbury Cathedral. Whoever told the best story would get a free meal. | Chaucer skillfully incorporated literary devices such as irony and satire into his tales to criticize English society, and especially the Church | 'He was a noble pillar of his order' - description of the Friar | this is sarcasm (using praise to mock) and verbal irony (double meaning) at work

6: Sir Gawain and the Green Knight | Bob and Wheel | - the poem's form | the Green Knight | '...green as the grass, and greener...' | ------ Nature's Champion | ----- Strange, supernatural, non-Christian | ---- got his head chopped off, but simply picks it up, unfazed | represents wilderness, in --- contrast to King Arthur's court which stands for civilization | tests Gwain and ------ teaches him the value of loyalty to one's own words | scolds Gwain for failing ----- his test, but does not hold grudges against him | ----- values chivalric code, but understands it can cause one to be too self-conscious

7: IRONY | Sir Gawain is supposed to be the most ideal of King Arthur's knights in the code of chivalry, but is actually found to be flawed, valuing his life over the promise of his words | The Green Girdle is supposed to protect Gawain from any harm, but taking it actually revealed his flaws and endangered his life since it signified him going against the chivalric code, making him fail the Green Knight's test | The color white represent purity. The cut on Gwain's white neck as well as the drop of blood on the snow from that dripped from Gwain represents his impurity. It shows that Gwain has strayed from the chivalric code | IRONY | SYMBOL

8: Whoso List to Hunt | a deer or doe is used as a symbolism for a woman | ABBA ABBA CDDC EE - the rhyme scheme is a mix of Petrarchan and English sonnet forms | the mistress that appears may have been influenced by Anne Boleyn | Pun | 'deer' and 'dear'

9: Thomas Wyatt produced the first sonnets writtten in English translations of Latin verse written by Petrarch | The AUTHOR | His love poems center on the ill-treatment of a lover by his mistress. Anne Boleyn may have been his mistress before her marriage to Henry VIII | "Noli me tangere, for Caesar's I am..." | around the doe's neck, there is a diamond necklace with these words, suggesting that she is the 'property' of a powerful man

10: The Passionate Shepherd to His Love | Christopher Marlowe | The poem shows a shepherd proposing to his love. He persuades her with the pleasures of countryside living. He promises her days of watching shepherds & their sheep, sleeping on beds of flower, wearing pure wool, and singing & dancing. | FORM | -pastoral lyrics in quatrains -iambic tetrameter -aabb | Pastoral Literature | Involves shepherds & idealized rustic landscapes to indirectly explore themes. Here, the shepherd represents the Elizabethan courtier, offering simple pleasures in a sophisticated and poetic manner.

11: The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd | Sir Walter Raleigh | (is a continuation to Marlowe's poem!) | Although the nymph is 'antipastoral', she is still part of the pastoral tradition. The nymph's perspective is quite opposed to the shepherd's. While the shepherd speaks of ideal things, the nymph brings to light the more realistic aspects of his proposal. | "The gowns, thy shoes, thy beds of roses... Soon break, soon wither, soon forgotten" | The nymph speaks that the fresh spring will turn into freezing winter, love will cool as quickly as it heats, and that all things will wither away. However, she does acknowledge the beauty of the shepherd's world, and she would be interested if he could deliver it truthfully.

12: Sonnet #18 | William Shakespeare | sonnet: | 14 line poem written in iambic pentameter | sonneto: | little sound or song | The sonnet form flourished during the Elizabethan period, and was considered 'vogue' to write sonnets. Sonnets deal mainly with the following: | 1) love of poet for a beautiful but unattainable woman 2) inflexible relationship (woman was the 'cruel fair' whose favours her servant sought endlessly but hopelessly 3) love lyrics addressed to existing or non-existing women, fellow poets, and ladies of fashion

13: RHYME SCHEME | ABABCDCDEFEFGG | There are 154 sonnets written by Shakespeare, and it seems that put together, they present to us a certain story. For Example, his first 126 sonnets (of which sonnet 18 is included) seems to be addressed to a very good-looking young man with bright prospects. | Shakespeare | 'Thou art more lovely and more temperate' | The person being described is compared to the beauty of that of a summer's day. However, while summer is only seasonal, he is continuously a beautiful person, and his soul outshines even death. Through this poem, the friendship between Shakespeare and this man will become immortal, 'so long as men can breathe, or eyes can see'.

14: The Tempest | William Shakespeare | Prospero, once the Duke of Milan, was overthrown by his brother Antonio and banished out into the sea with his baby daughter Miranda. They came across an island ruled by the witch Sycorax, but Prospero was able to take control of the island through his magic powers. Now, twelve years later with the spirits of the island under his command, Prospero created a giant tempest to shipwreck his enemies onto his island... | Prospero | Miranda | Antonio | Ferdinand (alonso's son)

15: Symbolism | Chess Game: | - the 'kings' are Prospero and Alonso (Antonio's accomplice) - the 'rook' is Caliban, who understands his position and has black & white opinions - the 'pawns' are Ariel and Antonio | Tempest: | - both literal and metaphorical -the tempest builds up as Prospero is betrayed, and strikes initially at sea to take revenge on his enemies -while the tempest rages on, there is great confusion & craziness as Caliban, Stephano,and Trinculo conspire to kill Prospero, Antonio and Sebastian plot against Alonso and Gonzalo, and in the midst of all this Ariel works to mess up the murderous plans - there is calm after the storm when Ferdinand & Miranda become engaged and Prospero accepts the apologies of his enemies, bestowing upon them forgiveness | Prospero's Books: | - power, unconventional (non-Christian) spirituality - Prospero is dependent on magic for power - leads Prospero to want to become isolated and withdrawn from society - must give up his power to re-enter society - Prospero has been likened to Shakespeare, and the act of throwing away his books may reflect Shakespeare's plan to retire from writing | 'There thou mayst brain him' | Caliban

16: A Valediction Forbidding Mourning | John Donne | Was written to his love as he was departing on a long journey. However, he told her there was no need for mourning as they were connected deeply internally. | "No tear-floods, nor sigh-tempests move" | COMPASS: | just as how the two feet of a compass are connected at a center, Donne says | that no matter how far away they are from each other, they will always be linked. Furthermore, they work to draw a circle, which represents the perfect quality of their spiritual love.

17: Metaphysical Poetry | - metaphysical conceit - intellectual wit - learned imagery - subtle argument | FORM | -ABAB Rhyme scheme -Iambic tetrameter | Movement of Earth and other Planets: | Donne compares the difference in quality between their shared love and others' by bringing in the movement of planets. He states that the "moving of th' earth" is akin to | "dull sublunary lovers' love", which are connected only by physical contact. On the other hand, the love shared between him and his love is like the "trepidation of the spheres" which goes beyond just physical sensations and is more innocent than the former.

18: To the Virgins to Make Much of Time | Robert Herrick | Carpe Diem | "Carpe Diem" means "seize the day" in Latin, acknowledging the unknown fate of our lives and urging people to live life to the fullest. The message of Herrick's poem is quite similar to this saying. advising young ones to take advantage of their opportunities while they can, before the "same flower that smiles to-day" dies the next day. | FORM | Odd numbered lines: Iambic Tetrameter Even numbered lines: Iambic Trimeter with Catalexis Rhyme Scheme: ABAB | THE SPEAKER seems to be someone who has committed the mistake of squandering their youth, and is therefore advising others to not to follow in his footsteps.

19: "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may" | Herrick lived until 83 years old, in the 1600's! | The Brevity of Life | Various symbols are used throughout the poem to emphasize the short quality of life. The life cycles of flowers are compared to the shortness of youth. The progression of the sky through the sky and the cooling of fervor as one moves away from youth into old age is also mentioned to indicate the brevity of life, and of youth especially. | Marry While You're Fresh | In this time era, the speaker is essentially urging young women to marry young. At this time, marriage was even more of a big deal than it is in our modern era. Marrying opened up a whole new world (own home, family, husband, etc.) and would be the making the most of one's time.

20: Paradise Lost | John Milton | "to justify the ways of God to men" | Blank Verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter | Paradise Lost deals with matter that are on a magnificent scale, discussing Hell, Heaven, the Creation, Satan, and more. In the short segment of Paradise Lost that was read, the fall of Lucifer (Satan) into hell from the heavens and his consequent determination to "ever to do ill" and "reign in Hell than serve in Heaven" was discussed. | SATAN (in the front): was formerly called Lucifer, meaning light-bearer, before his fall BEELZEBUB (behind): Satan's lieutenant and chief supporter

21: Milton's Poetic Style | 1. use of exotic place names 2. use of classical, mythological, and Biblical Allusions 3. inversions of normal word order 4. highly Latinized vocabulary 5. use of multiple meanings connected to one word 6. omission of words not needed for clarity of message 7. use of adjectives to replace nouns 8. use of elaborate epithets 9. use of epic simile | Milton is considered as one of the greatest pillars of English literature for his intellect and impressive skill with language | THE EPIC | A long poem narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation. The epic poem achieves larger-than-life proportions.

22: A Modest Proposal | Jonathan Swift | During the 19th century the country of Ireland was extremely impoverished due to England's poor government and Ireland's dire economic situation... | So Swift wrote this deeply satirical piece to criticize the English government as well as the Irish people themselves He proposed that they sell the many children that are unable to be taken care of for consumption, as well as skinning them for their leather. | 1 Child = 4 Dishes | corruption of the government left society in ruins | the Irish people's passivity led to their becoming homeless and left out on the streets

23: SATIRE | "Satire arouses laughter or scorn as a means of ridicule and derision, with the avowed intention of correcting human faults" - the UVIC Writer's Guide | Devices of Satire | Forms of Argument | Logos: logic and thought Ethos: ethics and morals Pathos: emotions and feelings Bathos: false, exaggerated pathos | Verbal Irony: saying one thing and meaning the opposite Overstatement: exaggeration by saying more than you mean to say Mockery: emphasizing the triviality of a subject by treating it with exaggerated importance | Satire in Modest Proposal | [{{[]]-(the landlords) 'devoured most of their parents' -'a little bordering upon cruelty' -'beggars by profession' -the other will have enough money from the sale of her child to have another one | -the poor will have something of value, only to have it seized like thier previous valuables ='some scrupulous people might be act to censure such a practice'

24: The Rape of the Lock | Alexander Pope | MOCK EPIC | a long, humorous narrative poem that uses the grand, elevated style of true epics to portray a trivial subject. | "using a vast force to lift a feather" | Hamptom Court Palace beside the Thames, the setting of the mock-epic | Miss Arabella Fermor | The Rape of the Lock was based on an actual occurrence and was written to try to resolve a dispute about to turn into an all-out feud. A young baron by the name of Lord Petre had cut off a curl of hair from the head of a Miss Arabella Fermor. When he refused to give it up and the conflict escalated, Pope's friend John Carryll suggested he write a story on the absurdity of the situation

25: THE CARD GAME | In the story, the nobles are shown to be playing a game of cards as a form of entertainment and flirtation. The card game is described in a highly elevated and dignified style, parodying the magnificent battles of true epics. This also shows that whereas before efforts were put into much greater subjects, now they were placed into petty card games. | Epic Conventions | In Media Res: Belinda visited by Sylph Ariel and notified of a dreadful fate Heroic Character: Belinda is rebellious, has an antagonist, beautiful, has followers, successful in battles A Battle: Belinda vs 2 men in a card game, Bells vs. Bous through words and looks Travel to the Underworld: Umbriel gets bag of woman's emotions from Underworld Elaborate Speeches: Baron exults in his conquest of the lock Happy Ending: Lock of hair becomes a star as a reminder of possessiveness and freedom | THEME: Mighty contests rise from trivial things

26: Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard | Took Gray NINE years to write! | "memento mori", remember that you must die | The setting is a country churchyard at sunset, and this deep sight moves the speaker to meditate on the subject of human mortality. The poem is important in the Romantic | sense because it takes from the simple, humble lives of the countryside, while idealizing and elevating the common man. The speaker recognizes the fact that death makes all equals, ponders whether any of the people buried in the churchyard had excellent talents that just never had the chance to be discovered, and concludes by admiring the simple lives they had led.

27: Thomas Gray | -Was considered England's foremost poet -Only surviving child in a family of eight -Retained ties to the neoclassical tradition, but also ventured into new areas of poetry - found inspiration in country life and humble people | Elegy: | 'was originally used to describe any serious meditative poem, but is now used to refer to a poem that laments the death of a particular person' | Connotations: | "curfew", "tolls", and "knell" have connotations of death | Symbol: | the yew tree was associated with death | Theme: | -before death, everyone is equal -life and its small pleasures no longer experienced by the dead -desire to be remembered | Allusion: | Hampden, Milton, Cromwell: great man who have died | Epitaph: | this last section is written for the speaker himself

28: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner | Samuel Taylor Coleridge | Published in 1798, Lyrical Ballads was a collection of poem authored by both Coleridge and Wordsworth. The publication of this book is generally thought to be the beginning of the Romantic movement. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner was included in this compilation. | The story is told though a sailor telling his tale to a man on his way to his wedding. The ancient mariner speaks of how his ship was blown towards the South by a storm, and how the crew came upon an albatross who seemed to bring good fortune. However, the mariner shot the bird with a crossbow, and soon after the consequences of his guilt torment the crew...

29: mariner shoots the albatross | the ALBATROSS was a sign of good women, who brought favourable events to the sailors. However, when the mariner killed this kindly spirit with his crossbow, the crew was subject to a punishment more horrid than death. | Only when the mariner was able to bless the creatures of nature did the murdered albatross fall from his neck and his curse freed. The albatross represented nature and man had to live in harmony with it. | "Beyond the shadow of the ship, I watched the watersnakes" | At first, the mariner detested the 'slimy things' that crawled 'upon the slimy sea', but when he was able to appreciate their beauty and blessed them from his heart, the curse was lifted from him. | Now the mariner tells his tale to others, teaching them to love nature and express reverence to all creations of God.

30: Ode to the West Wind | Percy Bysshe Shelley | ODE: | a lengthy lyric poem written in formal style on a serious subject | ABA, BCB | Terza rima: an Italian verse form made up of 3-line stanzas with the above rhyme scheme | When Shelley wrote the 'Revolt of Islam", it received quite poor reception from critics. Adding insult to injury, his son had died, and these two miseries brought Shelley the eternal rain cloud known as depression. After a period of time, Shelley returned to the writing scene with "Ode to the West Wind".

31: WINDS bring fresh air, revitalization, and a sentiment of change. As such, Shelley calls upon the West Wind to bring change upon the souls of himself and his fellow humans, as it brings life and death in nature. | APOSTROPHE | FORMAT | There is a combination of the terza rima and the sonnet, joining four tercets to a concluding couplet, resulting in five sections of 14 lines each. There is a repeating rhyme, which reinforces the looming feeling of urgency. | Shelly directly addresses the wind | The wind is destructive, and at the same time creative. Its 3 objects of power are the autumn leaves, the clouds, and the waves. The wind is everywhere, and just as all things die in nature, so is humans' time limited. | Shelley recognizes his purpose is to be a "''lyre'' and convert the harmonies of the wind into poetry for men to read.

32: Ode to a Nightingale | John Keats | Hampstead, northwest London, where Keats was staying with his friend Charles Brown in the May of 1819 when he wrote this poem | When a nightingale built her nest near Brown's house, Keats found peace and joy in her songs. One morning he went out, set himself down under a plum tree, and translated his poetic feelings onto paper.

33: Dream or Reality? | Keats' poem describes how the poet is able to identify himself with the joy of the songbird, and yet still feels helplessly detached from its beauty. As the poem progresses, it increasingly becomes clear to him that the state of tranquil trance he has been placed into by the bird's melodies are only transient. As the spell ends, Keats is left to decide which was reality and which was imagination in the hazy aftermath of his intense experience.

34: My Last Duchess | Robert Browning | Dramatic Monolgue: | "A poem in the form of a speech or narrative by an imagined person, in which the speaker inadvertently reveals aspects of their character" (Google) | The poem's setting is in the castle of the Duke of Ferrara, a powerful Italian nobleman of the Renaissance. An envoy has arrived from the family of his to-be-second wife, and he lets them have a look at a portrait of his first wife, his last duchess, while he seems to drop malicious hints as to the cause of her untimely death as he talks about her portrait...

35: THE DUKE of Ferrara is revealed by his monologue to be quite the vile man, being materialistic, remorseless, possessive, jealous, arrogant, and condescending. When he saw faults in the behaviors of his first wife such as being pleased by all sorts of things and smiling 'flirtatiously' at everyone, it is implied that he ordered her death. Only after her death and she belongs to him as an object on the wall does he seem satisfied, since he can control who gets to view her by his closing or opening of the curtains that reside near the painting. | This poem was actually thought to have been based on Alfonso II d'Este (Duke of Ferrara), whose wife Lucrezia met an early death under suspicious circumstances. | FORM: | - iambic pentameter couplets - dramatic lyric - enjambment - dramatic monologue

36: Because I Could Not Stop for Death | Emily Dickinson | Death is presented as a gentle, kind guide as 'he stopped for' the speaker since she 'could not stop for Death' due to her buys life. Within Death's carriage are three beings: Death himself, the woman, and Immortality. As they ride on, the speaker sees how she is leaving life, as the 'gazing grain' becomes ripe and the sun sets.

37: FORM: | - first and third line in every stanza is iambic tetrameter - second and fourth line in every stanza is iambic trimeter - rhyme is not regular - capitalization creates emphasis, causing reader to pause and slow down on their reading | THE CARRIAGE | The carriage present in the poem is death's vehicle, the mode of transportation of dead souls. Its ride is the last passage to one's demise. | The House | The 'house that seemed a swelling of the ground' is actually a grave. However, the company only pauses there, indicating that death is only a stepping stone towards eternity.

38: Dulce et Decorum Est | Wilfred Owen | Dulce et Decorum Est vividly displays the horrors of trench warfare during World War I, and especially the appalling attacks of lethal gas. | QUICK BOYS! | GAS! GAS! | "an ecstasy of fumbling"

39: Wilfred Owen himself had first-hand experience of trench warfare. After enlisting in 1915, he was on the battle lines in France in 1916 as well as 1917, receiving the Military Cross for heroism. HE was killed in action seven days before the Armistice. | "DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI" | This was Latin for 'it is sweet and proper to die for one's country'. However, real war was nowhere as pretty as the saying. Bodies were thrown into wagons like useless objects, and young people were drawing countless drops of blood for the sake of human greed. This poem points out the old lie of the saying

40: Pygmalion | Bernard Shaw | The original tale of Pygmalion comes from Greek mythology, where a man by the name of Pygmalion had sculpted a woman so perfect to his ideals that he fell in love with her. He did all thing he would to a real partner, talking to her, dressing her, and even sleeping with her. One day, he prayed to the goddess Venus, and upon seeing his great care, she blew life into the statue, and she became Galatea, a real human, now to become Pygmalion's wife. | Shaw's Pygmalion follows Eliza Doolittle, a poor flower girl, as she endeavors to change her way of speaking into that fit for royalty. She is taken under the instruction of Professor Higgins, and so her transformation begins....

41: Eliza Doolittle | Professor Henry Higgins | Eliza is the main protagonist. She is a lowly peasant girl who learns the ways to act and speak like a duchess under Higgins' instructions. She is firm in her opinions, sassy, emotional, and also very innocent. As she continues with her lessons, she becomes more self-controlled and independent. | Higgins is a master of speech and he takes on the challenge of correcting Eliza's lower class Cockney accent. He is egoistic, can be manipulative (although he doesn't have ill intentions), and is quite an eccentric member of the high society as he is impatient with its ways and doesn't care for others' glances. | 'Pygmalion' in Pygmalion | Just as in the Greek myth, the male protagonist (Higgins) creates a woman to a standard and ideal he holds in his beliefs. He carves the rough stone that is the flower-girl-Eliza into an elegant and independent woman. However, unlike the myth where things simply end happily and plainly, Bernard Shaw's play proposes some important issues made apparent by Eliza's distress after her transformation. The absolute, supposedly perfect man that has created a woman in his idealized image was not able to understand the feelings of his creation. He seemed to expect complete loyalty and was offended when Eliza did not act according to his predictions. In fact, it was questionable whether he loved his art that created the woman, or the woman herself. Shaw's Pygmalion matches the original myth against modern settings and imbues it with a feminist twist.

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