1: Table of Contents | Pages 2-5... Mesopotamia Pages 6-9... Egypt Pages 10-13... China Pages 14-17... India
2: *Mesopotamia* | Mesopotamians believed their Gods were immortal, yet all-powerful. Humans were their servants. It was believed that at any moment, the mighty anger of the Gods might strike to destroy the city. | Historians believe that the Sumerians invented the wheel, the sail, and the plow, and that the Sumerians were among the first to use bronze. | Kings, landholders, and some priests made up the highest level in the Sumerian Society. Next came the wealthy merchants. People that worked with their hands in fields and workshops were middle class, and made up the variety. The slaves were at the bottom.
3: Hammurabi collected existing rules, judgements, and laws into his code. Hammurabi had the code engraved in stone, and copies were placed all over his empire. | Earliest governments were controlled by the temple priests. The farmers believed that the success of their crops depended on the blessings of the Gods, and the priests acted as go-betweens with the Gods.
4: Natural resources were limited. Building materials and other necessary items were scarce. It contained no natural barriers for protection. | Mesopotamia is located in present day Iraq. | The devolpment of writing was one of the keys of growth of the civilization. Cuneiform was a system of writing created by the Sumerians. In 2300 B.C., one of the first maps was made on a clay tablet.
5: Mesopotamians were polytheistic. One of the most powerful Gods was Elil, who was the God of storms and air. | The land of Mesopotamia sometimes became almost a desert. There were periods of little to no rain combined with unpredictable flooding./
6: Egypt | The earliest form was writing were simple pictographs. Scribes soon developed hieroglyphics. | The religious controlled the government. The priest hears from God.
7: The nile river rose and spilled ever year in July over its banks due to rains and melting snow from the mountains of Africa. In October the river receded, leaving behind a rich deposit of fertile black mud called silt. This was known as "The Gift of The Nile" | Egyptinas were polytheistic. The most important gods were Re, the Sun God, and Osiris, the god of the dead. Isis was the most important goddess, and she represented the ideal mother and wife. | The pharoah was always at the high end of the social class. Then came vizier, followed by high priests and nobles. Engineers and doctors came next, then scribes, and then craftsmen. Finally came the soldiers, farmers, and tomb builders.
8: Egyptians used mummification to preserve important bodies of pharoahs or rich people. There were six steps involed and it took seventy days to comlete | Just as construction workers today leave their markers on skypscrapers they build, the pyramid builders scratched messages for the ages inside the pyramids.
9: The end of the olf kingdom was in 2180 B.C. The power of the pharoahs was declined. Strong pharoahs regained control during the middle kingdom, which was 2040-1640 B.C. These pharoahs restored law and order. | They built their pyramid blocks so tight together tht even today, over 4,000 years after they were built, you cannot stick a razor sharp knife into any two blocks. The blocks of the pyramid are so heavy that tornadoes or hurricanes cannot detroy them. | Giza is know as the great pyramid. It was completed around 2556 B.C.
10: Each character in the Chinese method of writing stands for one syllable or unit of language. | The advantage of the Chinese system of writing was that people in all parts of China could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoken languages were different. This helped the Chinese unify a large and diverse land. | Shang Di was the supreme God that was always worshipped by lesser Gods, all by the use of oracle bones. | China
11: The chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living members of the family. | Unlike Egyptian hieroglyphics, there were practically no links between China's spoken language and its written language. | Shang society was sharply divided by nobles and peasents It was governed by a ruining class of warrior- nobles headed by a king; these were the noble families that owned the land.
12: The Huang He's floods could be disastrous. Sometimes floods devoured whole villages, earning the river nickname "China's Sorrow", | Feudalism is established, which is a political system in which nobles or lords are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king. The nobles owe loyalty and military in return.
13: China's natural boundaries did not completely protect these settlers from the outsiders. Invasions from the west and north occurred again and again in the Chinese history. | The Zhou used iron to create weapons, especially dagger-axes and swords. They also used it for common agricultural tools made from such as sickles, knifes, and spades.
14: The world's tallest mountains to the north and a large mountain to the east helped protect the Indus valley from invasion. | The social classes organized into priests, then warrior classes, and finally farming class. It is believed that priests were in charge of military operations and trading. | The mountains guard an enormous flat and fertile plain formed by two rivers- The Indus and Ganges. | India
15: The Harappan language is found on stamps and seals made on carved stone used for trading pottery and tools. The language contains about 400 symbols. Some signs stand alone, while others seemed to be combined into two words. | yearly floods spread deposits of rich soil over a wide area; however, the loods along the Indus were unpredictable. The rivers sometimes changed course. | Archaeologists infer that priests most likely prayed for good harvests and safety from floods.
16: Goverment had a lot to do with religion. Indus valley was not too big on schooling. To them, discipline was the essence of schooling. | By 2800 B.C.E., private bathrooms, located on the ground floor, were found in many houses of the Indus civilization.
17: The Indus civilization grew and led onto drainage and sewage. Sophisticated irrigation an water storage systems were developed by the Indus valley civilization. | Language is completely unrelatied to anything else, meaning an isolate. It is some form of Indian- Iranian Indo- European.