FC: Comparative Government Project | By: Matt Davis
1: When was the countries current constitution adopted? | China --> December 4, 1982 Canada --> No Official constitution. It is composed of several different documents and written and unwritten acts, customs, judicial decisions and traditions dating from 1763. Of the written part of the constitution it includes the Constitution Act of March 29, 1867 and the Constitution Act of April 17, 1982. They also have several amendments to the Constitution Act of 1982 the last of which being in 2011. Mexico --> February 5, 1917 United States --> September 17, 1787 United Kingdom --> No official constitution, they rely on tradition and common law
2: Is the countries government a federal or unitary system? | Canada --> Federal China --> Unitary Mexico --> Federal Republic United States --> Federal United Kingdom --> Unitary
3: Is the governments power limited or unlimited? | Canada --> limited China --> Unlimited Mexico --> Limited United States --> Limited United Kingdom --> Limited
4: How is the executive branch structured? | Canada --> Ruler is Queen Elizabeth who is represented by Governor General David Johnston. The head of government is the Prime Minister. They have a federal ministry chosen by the Prime Minister. The monarchy is hereditary the governor is appointed by the monarch with the advice of the Prime Minister. Following the legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general. China --> Have a Chief of State and a head of government. Chief of state is President Xi Jinping with Vice President Li Yuanchao. The Head of Government is Premier Li Keqiang, the Executive Vice Premier is Shang Gaoli, and they have many Vice Premiers, these people are; Liu Yandong, Ma Kai, and Wang Yang. The President and Vice President are elected by the National People's Congress for a 5 year term. the Premier is nominated by the President and confirmed by the People's Congress. They are eligible to serve two, 5 year terms.
5: How is the executive branch structured? | Mexico --> Cheif of State, President, Cabinet, and they use elections to decide who is in office. Very similar to the United States government however they do elections every six years. United States --> Separated into the Chief of STate, Head of Government, and the Cabinet. The president appoints the members of the Cabinet. President is Barack Obama with Vice President Joe Biden. Presidential Elections are held every 4 years. United Kingdom --> They have a chief of state, Queen Elizabeth 2 who is followed by the heir Prince Charles, son of the queen. They also have a head of government in Prime Minister David Cameron, below Prime Minister they have the cabinet of ministers which are appointed by the Prime Minister. The monarchy, king or queen, is hereditary. For legislative elections the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually become the Prime Minister.
6: How is the Legislative Branch Structured? | Canada --> Bicameral parliament with a senate that has 105 seats which are appointed by the governor general with advice from the prime minister. They also have the House of Commons which consist of 308 seats who are selected by direct, popular vote. China --> National Peoples congress, which consists of 2,987 seats that all serve 5 year terms. Mexico --> Bicameral National Congress that has 128 seats, and 96 members which are elected by popular vote to serve six year terms. They also have the Chamber of Deputies that consist of 500 seats and 300 members who are also elected by popular vote and serve three year terms.
7: How is the Legislative Branch Structured? | United States --> Bicameral congress that has the Senate and the House of Representatives. The senate has 100 seats with 2 members selected from each state to serve 6 year terms. The House of Representatives has 435 seats with members selected by popular vote to serve two year terms. United Kingdom --> They have a bicameral parliament that consists of House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords memberships are not fixed, there are 780 seats, consisting of approximately 667 life peers, 88 hereditary peers, and 25 clergy. The House of Commons has 650 seats since the 2010 elections, members are elected by popular vote to serve 5 year terms unless the House is dissolved earlier. The House of Lords has no elections, they did in 1999 with the House of Lords act that would determine the 92 hereditary spots who would remain there and now they only have elections if there are vacancies in the hereditary spots.
8: What major political parties compete for power? | Canada --> Bloc Quebecois, Conservative Party of Canada, Green Party, Liberal Party, New Democratic Party China--> Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Mexico --> Citizen’s Movement, Institutional Revolutionary Party, Labor Party, Mexican Green Ecological Party, National Action Party, New Alliance Party, Party of the Democratic Revolution United States --> Republican, Democrat, Independent, Liberal United Kingdom --> The Conservative party, Alliance Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Labor Party, Liberal Democrats, Party of Wales, Scottish National Party, Sinn Fein, Social Democratic and Labor Party, Ulster Unionist Party, and the United Kingdom Independent Party
9: What type of economy does each of the countries have? | Canada --> Mixed China --> Market Oriented (worlds largest exporter) Mexico --> Free Market Economy in the trillion dollar class United States --> Market United Kingdom --> Mixed (both public and private)
10: How is the Judiciary structured? | Canada --> There is the Supreme Court of Canada wich has a chief justice and 8 judges. Chief Justice and justices are all appointed by the Prime Minister in Council. They have smaller courts that depend on the crime and where you are, these courts include, federal court of appeal, federal court, tax court, federal administrative tribunals, courts martial, provincial/territorial. provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts. China --> Supreme Peoples Court (340 judges with a chief judge and 13 grand justices) Chief justice is appointed by National Congress and term is limited to 2 consecutive 5 year terms Mexico --> They have three levels of courts, the Supreme, the State, and the District. the supreme court justices are appointed by the President and serve a life term.
11: How is the Judiciary structured? | United States --> The US supreme court consists of 9 Justices - the chief justice and 8 associate justices. They have federal court systems, state court systems, and the district and local courts. United Kingdom --> The highest court in the UK is the Supreme Court which replaced the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the high court in the UK in 2005 because of the Constitutional Reform Act. Judges are selected by an independent committee of several judicial commissions, and then their recommendations go to the Prime minister and they are then appointed by the queen. They have subordinate courts under that depending on what the crime committed and where you are. These courts are England and Wales - Court of Appeal ; High Court; Crown Court; County Courts; Magistrates' Courts; Scotland - Court of Sessions; Sheriff Courts; High Court of Judiciary; tribunals; Northern Ireland - Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland; High Court; county courts; magistrates' courts; specialized tribunals
12: How does the history of the country explain in which the way the government is structured? | Canada --> Branching off of the Early country that was America and also having close ties to Great Britain at the same time the country decided to take pieces from both countries and modernized it to a government structure much like that of the United Kingdom. China --> Mao Zedong lead the rise of the Communist party and established a socialist system after World War II. It was successful and has been in place ever since. Mexico --> Their government is very similar to that of the United States, which is one of its neighbor countries. Therefore it has most likely had a large influence on Mexico's government United States --> Due to Americas history our government is shaped the way it is today because of our hate for the English King that had complete control over the original colonies. We wanted to break away from an all powerful ruler and wanted to make a government that was by the people and for the people not just a government with an all powerful ruler that cares only for himself. United Kingdom --> The history of the country effects the way it is set up today because the history always had them with a king and one all powerful ruler. Now they have a queen who can attain all power if need be but she shares power to prime minister and other committees. They learned from past mistakes and that is why the country is set up the way it is today.
13: What are the countries top imports and exports? | Canada --> Imports: Machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods Exports: Motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircrafts, telecommunications equipment, chemicals, plastics, fertilizers, natural gas, electricity, and aluminum China --> Imports: Oil and mineral fuels, machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery components, medical equipment, cars, soybeans Exports: Electrical and other machinery, data processing equipment, apparel, textiles Mexico --> Imports: metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts Exports: manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton United States --> Imports: Oil, Machinery, Vehicles Exports: Machinery, Electronic Equipment, Oil United Kingdom --> Imports: manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, and foodstuffs they spend 646 billion a year importing these items Exports: manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, food, beverages and tobacco
14: Works Cited | Central Intelligence Agency, ed. CIA World Fact Book. Central Intelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
15: "Legislative Branch." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.