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Middle Colonies

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S: Middle Colonies By: Emma Wood US History Academy April 3, 2011

BC: The Middle Colonies

FC: What influence did Quakers have in the Middle Colonies? | How did geography affect the Quakers economy?

1: In 1682 William had to go back to England to settle a boundary problem with the proprietor of Maryland, Lord Baltimore. Some people were suspicious about William's relationship with the recently deposed King James II. He was accused of treason and stripped of his proprietorship. He was acquitted and his proprietorship was restored. Fifteen years later in 1699, William returned to Pennsylvania. | After returning to Pennsylvania, he wrote the Charter of Privileges which ensured religious freedom in the colony and it also made the colony's developing self-government official. In 1701 he was called back to England because he was going bankrupt. He had to stay in debtor's jail. After being released he tried to convince the king to grant back the charter, but soon he had a stroke. Six years later he died. | William Penn 1644 -1718 | William Penn toured England to tell everyone he could about Quaker beliefs. When his father died, the king owed him money. William asked for the payment in land instead of money, so he got the land of Pennsylvania or "Penn's Woods" after his father.The Quakers moved there in 1682. William designed the town of Philadelphia which means "city of brotherly love".

2: Quakers are people who believed that Gods 'inner light' was inside everyone. They were persecuted for their beliefs and moved to the new world for religious freedom. Since God did not make distinctions between race, gender, or social class, the Quakers would not either. They held services, which they called meetings, without formal ministers, dressed plainly, opposed war and, therefore, did not enter the military. They are also known as the Society of Friends. | Quaker meeting house: both men and women could speak at the meetings, but entered through separate doors and sat on separate sides. | William Penn's Charter of Privileges ensured religious freedom to the settlers. | R E L I G I O U S | B E L I E F S

3: William was the leader of Pennsylvania and was allowed to rule his colony as he saw fit, only having to answer to the king of England. The other colonies were largely ruled by the British Monarchy. William developed a colonial council made up of landowners that paid taxes who had the power to develop laws and administrate the government. William also appointed a governor who had the power to veto any laws passed by the council. | The society of Pennsylvania was very different from that of the other colonies. One difference was the lack of slaves. The Quakers wanted to abolish slavery, believing all people to be equal. They even wrote a petition to abolish the slave trade. The colony made peace with the Indians, so the people living there did not have to deal with Indian Wars. The people also were not socially ranked by their wealth. Pennsylvania became the ideal colony. | Part of the petition to abolish the Slave Trade | The first draft of William Penn's government framework | SOCIETY

4: The land granted to the Quakers by the king was fertile, allowing the Quakers to have a profitable agricultural economy. There was a strong West Indian demand for grain, making Philadelphia a major port. | William wrote to the Delaware (Leni Lenpae) tribe asking for them and the new settlers to be friends not enemies. He recognized that the Indians were the rightful owners of the land and promised not to sell any land until he bought it from the Indians. William also promised a strict regulation of trading with Indians and banned the sale of alcohol. William kept all his promises. | William sold a lot of the land to many families who wanted to have their own farms. There was no need to have slaves, partly because the Quaker religion banned it. This gave economic freedom to everyone. Another example of economic freedom is shown by the allowance of women to speak in public meetings. This is because Quakers believed that everyone was equal no matter gender, race, or social rank. | Economic | Trades and Opportunities

5: King Charles II granted William 45,000 acres of land. This amount of land was almost as large as England itself. The land was one of the most fertile in British America because it was located along the Atlantic Ocean. William began selling tracts of land to families for a fair price. They moved to Pennsylvania and opened up family farms. | William then spent a while carefully planning the city of Philadelphia. The city was placed at the convergence of the Delaware and Schuykill rivers. This probably had the greatest influence on the success of the city. Both waterways gave Philadelphia a safe, deep harbor and Schuyhill River was the best access way to the interior of the state. Philadelphia became one of the fastest growing ports in British America because of it easy access to the Atlantic. By 1700 Philadelphia's population was greater than that of New York. It became the largest city in the colonies, having a wide range of artisans, merchants, and professions. | Geographic Influence

6: Many colonies were able to farm because the land by the ocean was fertile, Pennsylvania especially. There much grain was grown and traded. Fruit grown was also a common food. Many families had their own farm. In Pennsylvania these farms did not have slaves. The farms supplied vegetables, like peas, potatoes, flax, wheat, and rye. They used flax to make cotton for clothes and blankets. The settlers also hunted. They hunted the wild animals, like deer and turkeys. Some families had their own chickens which they would use for meat and eggs.Grown vegetables and hunted meat were used to make soups and stews. The settlers made pies from raspberries, strawberries, and cherries that were gathered. Since water was sometimes unclean, all members of the family drank milk and whiskey. They made whiskey out of corn, rye, wheat, and barley. To improve the taste, whiskey was often mixed with spices, milk, and sugar. Agriculture was not the only way the colonists used natural resources. The Middle Colonies were full of fish, oysters and lobsters due to the closeness of the Atlantic. The colonists also used tree wood to build houses and for fires to keep warm. | Natural Resources

7: Works Cited 1)Bonomi, Patricia. “Religious Pluralism in the Middle Colonies.” Divining America, TeacherServe©. National Humanities Center. April 3,2011. 2)Elverson, Virgina J. and Mary Ann McLanahan. A Cooking Legacy, Walker & Company:New York, 1975, pg 14, 24-28, 79-81 3)Hagen, Thomas. Major Differences Between the Colonies.,Thomas Hagen, blog, 2005, wrdpress, April 3, 2011., http://thomashagen.wordpress.com/history-papers/major-differences-between-the-colonies/ 4)Hudson, Patricia. "Penning a legacy." American History 32.6 (1998): 16. MAS Ultra - School Edition. EBSCO. Web. 31 Mar. 2011. 5)Mintz, S. (2007). The Middle Colonies: William Penn's Holy Commonwealth. Digital History. Retrieved, April 3, 2011., from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=684 6)Oliver, Susan. "The Middle Colonies.", Susan Oliver, middle colonies article,March 2, 2011., Cerritos College, April 3, 2011., http://www.cerritos.edu/soliver/American%20Identities/making%20british%20america/Middle%20Colonies.htm 7) The Americans. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2011pgs 56-58 8)"William Penn: The Dedicated Quaker." Kid's View of Colonial America. 31. Great Neck Publishing, 2009. Primary Search. EBSCO. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. 9) All images from Google.com/images search"William Penn, Pennsylvania, Quaker meeting house, William Penn's Charter of Privileges, William Penn's slave petition, William Penn's government, Middle colonies, William Penn and Indians friendship treaty, corn,and lobster"

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Emma Wood
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