S: Mitosis and Meiosis
FC: Mitosis and Meiosis | By Caroline Robinson
1: Mitosis and Meiosis By Caroline Robinson
3: Interphase is the main stage in which the cell grows, carries out normal functions, and duplicates DNA. Interphase is the period between cell divisions. It is also the longest phase in the cell cycle. Interphase consists of three parts; G1, S, G2. Interphase occurs before both mitosis and meiosis. G1, which stands for Gap 1, is the first part of interphase, where the cell doubles in size. S, which stands for synthesis, is the second part of interphase. During the S part of interphase, the DNA is replicated. G2, which stands for Gap 2, is the last part of interphase. During G2, the cell prepares for mitosis or meiosis.
5: Prophase is the longest phase of mitosis. During prophase chromosomes coil up and the centrioles take their place at the poles of the cell. Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers. Near the end of prophase, the nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear. In the picture to the left, A, is pointing at the chromosomes. Chromosomes coil up during prophase. In the middle of the chromosome, there are circles. These circles are called centromeres. B, is pointing at the centrioles. The centrioles move to the poles of the cell during prophase. Letter C is pointing at the spindle fibers. The spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes. Letter D points at the nuclear membrane. The nuclear membrane disappears during prophase.
7: Metaphase is the shortest phase of mitosis. During metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell. The centromeres connect to the spindle fibers. Each side of the cell prepares to get a chromatid, or half a chromosome. Each X is chromosome. Half of an X is a chromatid. The chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. The centrioles are at the poles of the cell. Attached to each centriole are many spindle fibers. The spindle fibers are attached to the centromere of each chromosome.
9: Anaphase is the next phase of mitosis. During anaphase, the centromeres split. This causes chromosomes to split apart. When they split, one chromatid goes to one pole and the other chromatid goes to the other pole. The spindle fibers help to pull the chromatids to the centrioles, which are at the poles of the cells.
11: Telophase is the last stage of mitosis. During telophase the centromeres and the chromosomes reach the centrioles and they uncoil and relax. The nuclear membranes reappear.
13: Cytokinesis is the end result of mitosis. It is the division of cytoplasm. After cytokinesis, two genetically identical diploid cells are made.
15: Meiosis makes sex cells, or gametes. (Also known as sperm and egg.) Meiosis goes through two cell divisions: Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Meiosis I contains the processes called Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I. Meiosis II is Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II.
16: MITOSIS VS MEIOSIS
17: Mitosis *one round of cell division *46 chromosomes to start *46 chromosomes to end *forms body cells *forms two cells *diploid Meiosis *two rounds of cell division *46 chromosomes to start *23 chromosomes to end *forms sex cells (sperm and egg) *forms four cells *haploid