S: mitosis && meiosis
FC: Mitosis && Meiosis | By: Jazzmin Procaccini
1: Mitosis && Meiosis | By: Jazzmin Procaccini
2: Interphase | Interphase is the stage during which the cell grows and carries out cellular functions,and replicates, or makes copies of its DNA. in preparation for the next stage of the cycle. Interphase is divided into three substages. The period between cell division consists of G1, S, and G2. G1- the period immediately after a cell divides. during G1 a cell is growing, caring out normal cell functions and preparing to replicate DNA. Some cells, such as muscle and nerve cells, exit the cell cycle at this point and do not divide agian.
3: S- The second stage of interphase. It is the when a cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division. Chromosomes are the structures that contain the genitic material that is passed from generation to generation. G2- Stage that follows the S stage. It is the period when the cell prepares for the division of its nucleus.
4: Prophase | Prophase is the first and longest stage of mitosis. in this stage the cells chromatins tighten up or condenses into chromosomes. In prophase the chromosomes are shaped like an "X". At this point each chromosome is a single structure that contains the genetic material that was replicated in interphase. The structure at the center of the chromosome is where the sister chromatids are attached is called the centromere.this structure is important because it ensures that a complete copy of the replicated DNA will become part of the daughter cells at the end of the cycle. Nuclear membrane disintegrates. Spindle apparatus begins to form between the poles.
5: In animal cells and most protist cells, another pair of micrtubule structures called centroiles migrate to the ends or the poles, of the cell. Centroiles are not part of the sindle apparatus in plant cells.
6: Metaphase | Metaphase is the second stage of mitosis. The sister chromatids are pulled by motor proteins along the spindle apparatus toward the center of the cell and line up in the middle, or equator, of the cell. one of the shortest stages of mitosis but when completed successfully it ensures that the new cells have accurate copies of the chromosomes. Sister chromatids are at the equator. Sindle fibers connecting to the centromere.
8: Anaphase | In anaphase the chromatids are pulled apart. This is the third stage of mitosis. The microtubules of the spindle appartaus begin to shorten. This shorting pulls at the centromere of each sister chromatid, causing the sister chromatids to seperate into two identical chromosomes. At the end of anaphase, the microtubules, with the help of motor protiens, move the chromosomes toward the poles of the cell. The centromeres split.
10: Telophase | Telophase is the last stage of mitosis. This is the stage of mitosis during which the chromosomes arrive at the poles of the cell and begin to relax, or decondense. A nuclear membrane begins to form around each centromere and the chromosomes begin condensing on the centromere.
12: Cytokinesis | Cytokinesis is the end result of mitosis. It is the division of cytoplasm. Two new genetically identical diploid cells are created
14: Meiosis | Meiosis is a type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes, therefore it is referred to as a reduction division. Gametes are found in meiosis. Meiosis occurs in the reproductive structures of organisms that reproduce sexually. Meiosis involves two consecutive cell divisions called meiosis 1 and meiosis 2.
16: Mitosis vs.Meiosis | Meiosis goes through two rounds of cell division. Mitosis maitains the chromosome number and meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half through the seperation of homologus chromosomes. Mitosis forms genetic cells and meiosis produces gametes and reproductive cells. Mitosis is a haploid which means a cell with n number of chromosomes and meiosis is a diploid which means a cell that contains 2n number of chromosomes. Mitosis forms two cells and meiosis produces only one.