S: Progressive Era (1900-1920)
FC: Progressive Era 1900-1920 Taylor Scott 7th Period
1: Table Of Contents. | Page 2&3 The Muckrakers Page 4&5 Goals of the Progressives Page 6&7 Progressivism under Roosevelt Page 8&9 Progressivism under Taft Page 10&11 Progressivism under Wilson Page 12-17 Progressive Era Amendments Page 18&19 Progressive Era Report Card
2: The Muckrakers
3: progressives who sought reform and change | Reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for popular magazines. | Jacob Riis wrote on the deplorable conditions in housing with the intent to change conditions for immigrants. Similarly, Upton Sinclair exposed the meatpacking process which prompted change in the form of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Other muckrakers were just interested in selling a sensationalist story to the American public. | The muckrakers were reporters, authors, and critics who sought to expose the evils and injustices of Gilded Age society
4: Goals of the Progressives
5: To ensure laws on working hours and conditions are drafted. They also wanted the government's intervention in business to make it fair for everyone. | Election of US senators directly by people instead of by state legislature. Improving conditions of housing particularly in crowded slums. Improving conditions of workers in mines and factories. This included improvement in areas like working hours and conditions, safety, and wages.
6: Progressivism Under Roosevelt
7: Roosevelt had a well-deserved reputation as a “trustbuster.” During his administration (1901–09), 44 antitrust actions were filed against the nation's largest corporations | Roosevelt's approach to social problems, big business, and labor unions — was that he distinguished between “good” and “bad” trusts and strongly preferred to regulate corporations for the public welfare rather than destroy them. | Sought to move the dominant Republican Party into the Progressive camp. Dissolved 40 monopolistic corporations as a "trust buster." His "Square Deal" included regulation of railroad rates and pure foods and drugs.
8: Progressivism under Taft | William Taft
9: Taft filed twice the number of antitrust suits as Roosevelt, and the Supreme Court upheld the breakup of Standard Oil under the Sherman Antitrust Act (1911) during his administration. | Taft actively supported both the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments (which provided for the federal income tax and direct election of senators, respectively) and established new agencies, such as the Bureau of Mines, which set standards of mine safety, and the Federal Children's Bureau.
10: Progressivism under Wilson
11: The Underwood-Simmons Tariff (1913) was the first law to substantially lower rates in 50 years. Under the Federal Reserve Act (1913), Federal Reserve banks were set up in 12 regions across the United States. The cornerstone of Wilson's antitrust policy was the Federal Trade Commission (1914) which was intended to control unfair competition in interstate commerce. | Wilson showed little interest in the social concerns associated with progressivism during his first term. With the Republican Party on the mend as the 1916 election approached, he began to include more reforms in his domestic agenda. | Wilson lowered the tariff, introduced the income tax, and instituted the Federal Reserve System to reform the national economy.
12: Progressive Era Amendments
14: 16th Amendment | The Sixteenth Amendment gave the federal government the power to lay and collect an income tax regardless of the source of that income. A graduated income tax has always been the number one goal of socialism. It is the means whereby government redistributes the produce of labor among the people. In 1911, the Sixteenth Amendment was passed by Congress and submitted to the states for ratification. It was ratified February 3, 1913.
15: The Seventeenth Amendment provided for the direct election of Senators by the people rather than by the state legislatures as the original Constitution called for. In the aftermath of the seventeenth amendment, the checks and balances derided by Woodrow Wilson would gradually diminish, if not disappear altogether. | 17th Amendement | The Senate also provided the balance of power between the central government and the state governments since it was the state legislatures who appointed the Senators. This intricate and complicated system of checks and balances in the republican government established by the Constitution began to unravel with the ratification of the sixteenth and seventeenth amendments. The seventeenth amendment was the first big step in converting the U.S. Government from a republic to a democracy.
16: 18th Amendment | The Eighteenth Amendment prohibited the import, export, transport, manufacture or sale of intoxicating beverages. Unlike the sixteenth and seventeenth amendments, prohibition did not stem from socialist dogma, but from the social gospel which was instrumental in the shaping of American socialism.
17: The Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote. Modern feminists are surprised to learn that the average woman of 1919 was opposed to the suffragists. In 1912, Roosevelt’s Progressive Party became the first party to have a plank supporting suffrage for women. The Nineteenth Amendment was passed by Congress June 4, 1919 and ratified by the states August 18, 1920. | 19th Amendment
18: Women finally gaining suffrage, passing of seventeenth amendment making for the direct election of senators, the passing of the Pure Food and Drug Act making for health standards in the food industry. There also came regulations upon the business world, such as the Clayton Anti Trust Act, which protected unions and the Hepburn Act which gave the Interstate Commerce Commission to set maximum railroad rates.
19: Child labor remained in place. The federal government didn’t regulate child labor until several years following the Progressive Era.