3: Introduction When I first started the module Principles of Teaching and Innovation, Enterprise and Employability I struggled to find new ways of submission because being at university I’ve always handed in essays, reports or presentations. I didn’t think I could produce a different form of submission. The book covers my journey through module 2, what I did, how I did it and how I’ve used this in my teaching. It contains theories and principles and how these develop employability skills which link to the employability agenda of current education policy. I have evaluated these theories and linked them to my own practice which displays different teaching styles used, activities and how I’ve adapted new emerging technology within my lessons. I hope you enjoy reading this as much as I have enjoyed producing it.
4: When Bruce first introduced the module I thought to myself there in no way I can incorporate any of this into my lesson. Maybe I could, but in my mind I wasn’t going to. Not because I wanted to be rebellious, but more because I didn’t know how to. I didn’t know much about emerging technologies and the title of the module scared me: Principles of Teaching and Innovation, Enterprise and Employability. Bruce set tasks during our first session. Come dressed as if were going for a job interview in your subject area Fill in your shield Complete your drivers questionnaire.
5: Unusual job role In this session which we prepared for, we were asked to get in to groups of four and were then given an unusual job role. My group's unusual job role was centered on an Escort. We all knew who was going to play which role. I was the friend, Lauren was the receptionist, Louise was the one who had a “date” and Ralph was the male escort. With these job roles we had to show the skills and qualities of an escort. At the time we were more interested in making the role as funny as possible but still being able to get the point across. We did show a few of the qualities and skills needed but came off track. As a whole group we all had an extra 10 minutes to discuss and show the skills and qualities of that specific job role. The exercise was fun however as a whole group I feel we forgot what the main emphasis of the task was. The task was about identifying skills and qualities required in the job market and elements of time management.
6: The Shield The shield task had been set the week before and needed to be brought in completed, but we had to design our own and not use the original one which had been given to us. The shield had four boxes which had a title and it needed to be completed with our answers, and at the bottom we had to write what my claim to fame was. Both of these tasks were forms of ICE breakers. Bruce gave us a few minutes to think of our own ICE breaker or activity that would incorporate employability skills and which we use without learners. As I was listening to everyone else’s ideas I started to think about the type of jobs my learners would eventually go in to. The majority of my learners will hopefully join one of the public services. Therefore the ICE breaker/employability skills appropriate to my learners would involve some sort of team building exercise. I came up with the idea of a representation of a mine field in the class room where the learners would have to get from one side to the other without setting off mines. The catch would be they wouldn’t be able to use the same route more than twice and a few of them would be blindfolded along with a time limit in which it needed to be completed. The skills which the learners would be required to display would include: Respond positively to change Be creative and innovative Understand risk and reward Be able to solve problems Communicate effectively Work as a member of a team Use initiative Take the lead as the occasion demands Be confident Problem solving (Metro police careers 2012.Fire Service 2012. Development. Army MOD 2012)
8: Action Learning Set Action learning sets were formed comprising of four students. The set needed to have 4 different subject specialisms. Jenny specialised in accountants, Aidy in Cookery, Lauren teaching functional skills from pre entry to level 1 and myself in sports and public services. This learning set became the name of Potiee (Principles of Teaching and Innovation, Enterprise and Employability). In the action learning set we needed to work together and produce a presentation which would meet the 3 learning outcomes below 1.Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of theories and principles of learning. 2.Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the key concepts, values and terminology for teaching employability skills. 3.Critically evaluate the effective use of a comprehensive range of innovative, creative and enterprising techniques and resources for teaching and assessing learning. When my action learning set first started to look at the learning outcomes we became confused about how to meet them. I had my idea of what was being asked and so did the others, however our ideas didn’t match therefore would not meet the learning out comes. The online teacher resources definition of an action learning set is ‘Cooperative learning activity where small groups of students work to identify what action should be taken to address a real world problem’. (The Online teacher resource 2012) As we didn’t really have a known starting point we needed to discuss what the learning outcomes were asking us to accomplish and address the problem. We then agreed how we should meet the learning outcomes. We each needed to pick a theory to research, demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge of that theory, and how we could link this theory to our teaching. In my action learning set I was given the task of understanding the theories of pedagogy and andragogy and then linking these to ICE, employability and implement within my own lessons.
10: Andragogy Andragogy was developed by Malcolm Knowles in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Andragogy has been labeled a theory or a set of assumptions about adult learners and it can be viewed as a starting point for those who work to train, motivate, or educate adult learners. Andragogy (the art and science of helping adults learn) differs from pedagogy (the art of helping children learn) because Andragogy focuses on adult learning. Much of Malcolm Knowles’ work has focused on self-directed learning. He spent years researching the difference between education for children and adult education. Prior to Knowles’ work many educators and theorists did not perceive great differences between the ways that children learn and the ways that adults learn. In his 1970 book (The Modern Practice of Adult Education), Knowles’ coined the term Andragogy According to Malcolm Knowles (cited in Armitage et al 2007:79) Andragogy focuses on five assumptions: 1.Learning should move from a teacher-dependant perspective to a self-directed perspective 2.Adults bring a greater level of experience to their learning compared to children 3.The timing of the learning tasks is important. Learning must be relevant to the learner 4.Learning is problem centred, not subject centred 5.Adults are internally motivates to learn, rather than externally motivated. One critique is that Andragogy is not a theory because it does not explain how and why people learn. Knowles (1980) explained ‘I don’t see Andragogy as an ideology at all, but a system of assumptions about learners that needs to be testes out for learners in different situations’ (Baumgartner et al 2003:59)
12: My lesson plans using Teaching styles, activities used with a special focus on ICE. Within my teaching I use both andragogy and pedagogy by switching between them. Here I’m minimising my role as the teacher. This is demonstrated within my lesson plans and observations where I used different activities, different teaching strategies and gave the learners opportunities to self-evaluate. In the lesson I’d been observed in I used different activities to engage learning, including a word search. The word search was selected because one or two learners are usually late, and knew their lateness wouldn’t disturb the other learners too much with this activity. The word search motivated the learners because it was a morning lesson and the word search hadn’t been used before. I thought I would be creative with this and didn’t include the answers. The learners were told the word search contained different forms of media and there were 11 types to be found. The aim of this activity was to engage the leaners to be motivated to start learning first thing in the morning. Problem solving is one of the Employability attributes outlined in Martin et al (2008:8). Throughout this lesson I used my personal experience to support teaching. This then engaged the learners to listen and respond. Martin, R., Villeneuve-Smith, F., Marshall, L. and McKenzie, E. (2008) Employability Skills Explored. London: LSN.
14: Gravells (2010:46) suggests that a well-designed activity will engage learners and could include elements of employability skills. During one activity, students were asked to identify different forms of media such as Facebook, newspapers and radio then categories these under the headings ‘most reliable’, ‘most used’, ‘most important’ and ‘most reliable’. Post it notes were used to write the type of media on by learners and these were stuck under the categories on the white board. A brief explanation was also included. I asked a few questions to the learners who didn’t give a great deal of an explanation, and challenged the learners who did give a good explanation. This lesson focused on implementing ICE, teaching styles and activities. According to Gravells (2010:3) I need to adapt my delivery style to suit the various needs and requirements of my learners, as well as the environment in which I deliver. For example integrate aspects of employability skills in the lessons I deliver.
16: Next term I will be teaching a new unit ‘Careers planning for the public services’. One of the learning outcomes is for learners to know the skills and qualities required for a job in the public services. I will be using the skills and knowledge which I’ve learnt from this module and will put them into practice for this new unit. For example my learners are on the course in hope of joining one of the public services. Whilst looking at the Ofsted definitions I thought what learning opportunities could I give my learners which will include some of these. Learning opportunities need to be innovative, creative and include employability skills. One of the learning opportunities I would use is a scenario or task which would engage the learners. I would use a team building exercise. This would not only give the learners employability skills but also they would have an insight into what happens when going for selection in the public services. The chosen team building exercise is Blindfold Tent Pitching Blindfold pitching is a great way to illustrate the importance of communication, collaboration and seeing a job through from inception to completion. Working in small groups, teams will be tasked with the job of erecting a 2-man tent. Here's the twist; all team members bar one will be blindfolded and they'll have to put the tent up without instructions. Blindfolded tent pitching is a fun and illuminating team building activity which breaks down barriers and bonds a group quickly. The aim of this team building exercise is to;
17: Improve verbal communication skills Break down barriers and bond a team Build trust Develop Leadership skills Illustrate the importance's of team building Take teams out of their comfort zones There are various types of ICE breakers and Team building exercises I could use but this one is relevant to my learners because they are studying another unit called Map and Navigation and go out on expeditions where they use tents.
18: Conclusion This module has been fun, exciting, but very challenging on a personal level. I didn’t always understand the meaning of all the ice breakers and other activities involved. Even though I knew what the module title was, I didn’t actually understand what it was until a few weeks into the module. I now know that my teaching needs to be creative and innovative, not just reading slides from PowerPoint and getting the learners to recite everything I say. It’s more than that. It’s about using new technologies which engage learners and being creative in my teaching. I’ve always said I want to be that teacher where students look forward to sitting in my class because they know they will come away learning something new or thinking they wish every class was like mine. From my first lesson I taught to the ones I’ve done during this module I have seen a change in the way I teach. I’m always thinking of new ways of engaging and motivating my learners and looking for ways to embed employability in to the lessons. This module has also taught me that not every learner is equipped with getting a job outside of education. They might have the qualifications but this doesn’t always mean they have the skills and qualities for a particular job. It has taught me to give learners opportunities to develop new skills and qualities for employability and to involve new experiences which are relevant to the work place.
19: Reference list Armitage, A., Bryant, R., Dunnill, R., Flanagan, K., Hayes, D., Hudson, A., Kent, J., Lawes, S. and Renwick, M. (2007) Teaching and Training in Post Compulsory Education. (3rd edn.) Maidenhead: OU Press. Baumgartner, L., Lee, M., Birden, S., Flowers, D. (2003). Adult learning theory. Available: http://www.calpro-online.org/eric/docs/theory.pdf. Last accessed 23/12/12. British Army . (2012). Careers . Available: http://www.army.mod.uk/reme/6478.aspx . Last accessed 15/12/12. Fire Service (2012). Development Available: http://www.fireservice.co.uk/development/personal-qualities-needed Last accessed 15/12/12. Gravells, A. (2010) Delivering Employability Skills in the Lifelong Learning Sector. Exeter: Learning Matters. Jerry Nevins. (). The Andragogical Approach. Available: http://www.jnevins.com/andragogy.htm. Last accessed 21/12/12 Martin, R., Villeneuve-Smith, F., Marshall, L. and McKenzie, E. (2008) Employability Skills Explored. London: LSN. Metro police careers (2012) Careers. Available: http://www.metpolicecareers.co.uk/policestaff/who_we_are_looking_for.html Last accessed 15/12/12. The online teacher resource. (2012). Action learning set . Available: www.teach-nology.com/glossary/terms/a/. Last accessed 21/12/12.