FC: To Kill a Mockingbird | Morgan Hartwig
1: Table of Contents | Setting................................................2,3,4,5 Scottboro Boys..............................................6 Emmett Till..................................................7 Real World Events..........................................8 To Kill a Mockingbird events..............................9 Point of View......................................10,11,12 Rewritten Perspective...................................13 Conflicts................................................14,15 Dynamic Characters..................................16,17 Static Characters......................................18,19 Symbols.............................................20,21,22 Themes.............................................23,24,25 Feminist School of Lit. Criticism....................26,27 New Historicism School of Lit. Criticism..............28 Psychoanalytical School of Lit. Criticism..............29
2: Setting | "Maycomb was an old town, but it was a tired town when I first knew it" (Lee 6). | Maycomb Country was a old, southern town during the Great Depression. There was no hurry, no money, and nothing to buy anyways.
3: During this time period, it was very common for people to be racist towards blacks. | " '....the evil assumption-that all Negroes lie, that all Negroes are basically immoral beings, that all Negro men are not to be trusted around our women, an assumption one associates with minds of their caliber' "(273).
4: "As a result the town remained the same size for a hundred years, an island in a patchwork sea of cottonfields and timberland" (174). | Maycomb is a small, old town which many of its inhabitants invest themselves in farming. It is secluded, surrounded by these fields and woods.
5: Setting Importance | It is important to understand the character and the conflicts that they face because different settings and time periods would have different types of characters. Knowing the setting will help understand how a character thinks and why they may be facing a specific conflict.
6: Scottsboro Boys | The Scottsboro boys were a group of nine black teenagers accused of a alleged gang rape of two white girls | The Scottsoboro Boys are similar to Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird. He was committed for a crime that never took place.
7: Emmett Till | Emmett Till was a 14 year old African American boy who was brutally killed for flirting with a white woman. His killers plead not guilty. | In both To Kill a Mockingbird and Real life, it is not socially acceptable to be involved in a interracial relationship
8: Real World Events | Emmet Till Trial -14 year old African American boy brutally murdered for flirting with a white woman -The killers plead not guilty | Scottsboro Boys -A group of 9 black teenagers accused of an alleged gang rape of 2 white females | Birmingham, Alabama -First Lady Mrs. Roosevelt sat in the middle between two segregated sections to show her stance on the matter of segregation | Scottsboro Trial -The two women lied when testifying that they were raped by the group of boys
9: To Kill a Mockingbird Events | Birmingham, Alabama -Mrs. Meriweather criticizes Mrs. Roosevelt for sitting near the Negroes | Mayella Ewell -Accused Tom Robinson of rape, a crime he never committed | Tom Robinson -Accused by a white female of rape, a crime he never committed | Tom Robinson -A group of town folks mobbed the prison with the intent of hurting Tom Robinson
10: Point of View | "He gently released my hand, opened the door, went inside, and shut the door behind him. I never saw him again" (Lee 373). | 1st person
11: Scout | During the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout begins as a 6 year old girl, and ends as a 8 year old. She is a tomboy, confident and proud, which often leads to her getting involved in fights. She is also smart for her age, being able to read and write.
12: Scout is the youngest in the household and Harper Lee uses her perspective to portray childlike innocence and through that, an opinion on matters that has not yet been affected by society and what is considered acceptable. By using Scout as the narrator, readers are also able to see first-hand how Scout grows and develops as a person in response to the events she has been exposed to.
13: I closed the knife, shoving it back in my pocket. “Scout is eight years old, she was too scared to know exactly what went on.” I concluded. “You’d be surprised.” Atticus remarked solemnly. “I’m not saying she made it up, I’m sayin’ she was too scared to know exactly what happened. It was mighty dark out there, black as ink. ‘d take somebody mighty used to the dark to make a competent witness” “I won’t have it,” Atticus stated quietly. “God damn it, I’m not thinking of Jem!” I stomped my foot, causing an echo to sound through the night. God help him believe me, I silently prayed. For the sake of both Jem and Mr. Arthur. “Mr. Finch, I hate to fight you when you’re like this. You’ve been under a strain tonight no man should ever have to go through. Why you ain’t in bed in the bed from it I don’t know, but I do know that for once you haven’t been able to put two and two together, and we’ve got to settle this tonight because tomorrow’ll be too late. Bob Ewell’s got a kitchen knife in his craw.” “Heck,” said Atticus suddenly, “that was a switchblade you were waving. Where’d you get it?” “Took it off a drunk man,” I lied carefully. It was important for Atticus to believe me in order to protect Mr. Arthur. “Heck?” “Took it off a drunk man downtown tonight.” I repeated. “Ewell probably found that kitchen knife in the dump somewhere. Honed it down and bided his timejust bided his time.” I hoped that Atticus would buy the lie. It was the best I could I come up with under the circumstances, and it would have to do. “It ain’t your decision, Mr. Finch, it’s all mine.” I sighed. “It’s my decision and my responsibility. For once, if you don’t see it my way, there’s not much you can do about it. If you wanta try, I’ll call you a liar to your face. Your boy never stabbed Bob Ewell,” I said honestly. “didn’t come near a mile of it and now you know it. All he wanted to do was get him and his sister safely home.” Mr. Finch hadn’t pieced it together yet. He hadn’t figured out that Mr. Arthur had left his house with a kitchen knife and stabbed Bob Ewell in order to save his kids. But I would never say anything. Letting it out that Mr. Arthur has killed Bob Ewell, well that would be the opposite of a thanks to him. Mr. Arthur doesn’t want that kind of attention. It’d be torture to him. Not to mention there would have to be a trial. No, Mr. Finch will just have to accept the fact that his boy Jem didn’t commit any crime and that’s that. Addressing Mr. Finch again, I finished. “I’m not a very good man, sir, but I am sheriff of Maycomb County. Lived in this town all my life an’ I’m goin’ on forty-three year old. Know everything that’s happened here since before I was born. There’s a black boy dead for no reason, and the man responsible for it’s dead. Let the dead bury the dead this time, Mr. Finch. Let the dead bury the dead.” Walking back to the swing I stopped and picked up my hat. I was finished here. Justice had already been served.
14: Conflict | Conflict | Jem destroys Mrs. Dubose's camelias after she insults him and his sister Scout | Man vs. Man | External | Francis calls Atticus a n*gger-lover so Scout punches Francis and splits her knuckle on his tooth | Man vs. Man | External | Mrs. Dubose struggles to break her morphine addiction | Man vs. Self | Internal
15: Childlike and acts without thinking | -Learns that things are not always as they seem -people are complex -grows up a little -learned new meaning of bravery | Short-Tempered | -Begins to learn to control temper -Earns some respect from her uncle | A morphine-addict, restricted, and Dependant | -Free -Independent
16: Jem | -ages 10-12 throughout story -Scout's brother -tries to act mature -tries to do what's right | Dynamic | The first summer with Dill, Jem plays with Scout and Dill often. As he gets older, he plays less and even scolds Scout for being childish. He begins to understand more about life as he witnesses racism and other factors first-hand.
17: Scout | Characters | -ages 6-8 throughout the story -Narrator -Intelligent for her age -tomboy | Scout's transformation from a tomboy to a young lady is a reason she is an example of a dynamic character. Scout learning to manage her anger and that everything is not as it seems, such as when she finally meets Boo Radley, also demonstrates this.
18: Static | Boo Radley | -Prefers to stay indoors -Shy -Timid | After saving Jem and Scout from the attack by Bob Ewell, Boo Radley returns to his quiet life in solitude.
19: Characters | Atticus | -Has an understanding of life -Intelligent -Believes in morality | Atticus does not let Bob Ewell's threats or Tom Robinson's case affect his outlook on life or change his personality.
21: The title To Kill a Mockingbird is significant because a mockingbird symbolizes innocence in the novel. The mockingbird represents the innocence and purity of many of the characters, untouched by the consequences of racism and other corruptible factors of the time period.
22: "Mockingbirds" | Boo Radley | Boo is a "mockingbird" because he is in fact different than how the town's residents perceive him. In reality, he is a shy gentlemen. | Scout Finch | Tom Robinson | Scout Finch could be considered a "mockingbird" because of her childlike innocence. | Tom Robinson is a "mockingbird" because he is an innocent man who tried for a crime he did not commit.
23: Themes | People are not always as they seem | People are not always as the seem at first. "'Wh-oh yes, you mean why do I pretend? Well, it's very simple,' he said. 'Some folks don't-like the way I live.'....'I try to give 'em a reason, you see. It helps folks if they can latch onto a reason. When I come to town, which is seldom, if I weave a little and drink out of this sack, folks can say Dolphus Raymond's in the clutches of whiskey-that's why he won't change his ways. He can't help himself, that's why he lives the way he does'" (Lee 268). Mr. Dolphus Raymond is not the man that most believe him to be. He pretends to be a drunk so that the town folks leave him be. This theme can be applied to real world or works of literature because it is important not to judge someone with knowing about them.
24: Good and Evil Coexist in the World | Good and evil coexist in the world. "It was Jem's turn to cry. His face was streaked with angry tears as we made our way through the cheerful crowd. 'It ain't right,' he muttered, all the way to the corner of the square where we found Atticus waiting" (284). Jem is innocent and is a generally good figure in the story, yet he is faced with a hardship when Tom Robinson's case is lost. This theme can be applied in other works of literature of the real world because in life, not everything is fair and there are both good and bad things that everyone will eventually have to face.
25: Courage | Courage exists in several forms. "'I wanted you to see something about her-I wanted you to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun in his hand. It's when you know you're licked before you begin but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what'" (149). Mrs. Dubose was a brave woman and fought her addiction so that she could be free. This theme can be applied elsewhere because it shows that courage is not measured in physical strength, and that bravery can appear in unlikely places. | This theme can be applied elsewhere because it shows that courage is not measured in physical strength, and that bravery can appear in unlikely places.
26: Feminist School of Literary Criticism | -started in 1960s -searches works of literature for pieces of work possessing a negative attitude toward women -based on differences between men and women, women in power, and how females experience things | Page | Description | Significance | 21 | 3 | 313 | War between the state. Fought 1871-65 after 7 states seceded form the Union.The north wins and slavery is abolished. | Used to characterize the citizens in Maycomb County | Sonewall jackson-Well known confederate general during the Civil War | Helps show how old Maycomb is | Mrs. Roosevelt, the first lady, sat in the middle of the isle between the segregated sections. | Displays the racism and the opinion of colored people in Maycomb | Allusion | Civil War | General Jackson | Mrs. Roosevelt in Birmingham
27: 9 | 331 | 273 | Page | Description | Significance | Allusion | Dracula | 1931 Vampire horror-film directed by Tod Browning | Referenced to the time period when Dracula was popular | Hitler | Austrian-born German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. Chancellor of Germany form 1933-45 | used to express the hypocritical stance of the people in the town who hate Hitler and believe prejudice is wrong, yet treat blacks unfairly | Thomas Jefferson | Founding Father of America, author of Declaration of Independence, and 3rd president of the US | Uses his quote "all men are created equal" to show justice and equality
28: New Historicism School of Literary Criticism | -believes history does not take into account both the winner and loser sides of history -traditional history favors the powerful -no way to know absolute truth -text contributes to understanding of cultures -different point of view change meaning of text | Calpurnia has some education. She can read and write efficiently. She has limitations because she is a woman and colored. These limitations include not being as educated and being expected to do "women's work" Cal is a black woman, therefore she is not looked as highly upon by white women such as Aunt Alexandra and is criticized for her color because others think they are better. Cal's life would be different if she were a white, superclass woman because she would be expected to be a southern belle ad involved member of the community. If Cal were a white, superclass male, she would be responsible for having a job and proving for the family.
29: Psychoanalytical School of Literary Criticism | -psychological -focuses on text only -focuses on author -Oedipal connotations -emphasis on dreams id: basic desire superego: what is socially acceptable ego: reality/balance of id and superego | Character | Functions as: | Reasoning | Atticus | Ego | Knows what is acceptable and follows the norm. He teaches his children morals. He chooses to protect Tom Robinson and tries his best to win the case despite the town's opinion | Aunt Alexandra | Super Ego | Wants Scout to act like a lady and obsesses over appearances and being proper | Jem | Ego | Displays childlike desires and wants such as searching for Boo Radley, but also criticizes Scout for bothering adults and not being respectful | Dill | id | Does what he wants without considering the consequences such as running away from home | Boo Radley | id | Represented temptation and adventure for the children | Calpurnia | Ego | Watches over children and ofter=n corrects them, yet she still brings them to her church despite the fact that many disagree with it | Miss Maudie | Ego | Lets Scout run in her backyard and is okay with her wearing pants, but she also scolds her and advises her to leave people alone such as Boo Radley