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PLANT PROJECT! - Page Text Content

FC: AP Biology Plant Hunt Jake Tracy periods 7,8,9 | OOOOOO! I WILL NEVER REVEAL MY SECRETS!


2: ENTRY #1 POISONOUS OHIO PLANTS! | 1: Poison Ivy | Scientific Name: Toxicodendron radicans Native to Cincinnati Area While this plant is not a true ivy, it can be found as a shrub, a trailing vine, or a climbing vine. It's name comes from the fact that the plant produces a compound called urushiol, which causes an allergic reaction in the human skin, leading to itchyness or blisters. | Other forms appear as: | Sachs, J. (2001). In Poison Ivy. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://poison-ivy.org/ Source of Info and Pictures

3: Scientific Name: Toxicodendron vernix Native to eastern United States, in all climates that range from Maine to northern Florida, with many various climates, the one common aspect is the favoring of flooded soils. This plant is a shrub, which, like poison ivy, has urushiol present in its sap, causing skin irritation. | ENTRY #1 POISONOUS OHIO PLANTS! | 2: Poison Sumac | Duke University. (2009, February 11). In Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron vernix). Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.duke.edu/~cwcook/trees/tove.html Source of Information and Pictures

4: 3. Atlantic Poison Oak | ENTRY #1 POISONOUS OHIO PLANTS! | Scientific Name: Toxicodendron pubescens Native to the western and eastern United States, not in the mid-country. Grow in most low elevation, non desert habitats, and prefer temperate climates throughout this range. Like the former two plants, contains urushiol, causing rashes in humans upon contact | Wikipedia . (2009, February 8). In Poison Oak. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PoisonOak_wb_biggerLeaves.jpg Source of Pictures | Hogan, PhD, C. (2008, October 15). Atlantic Poison Oak. In Globaltwitcher.com. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://globaltwitcher.auderis.se/artspec_information.asp?thingid=82914 Information Source

5: Entry #2 Gymnosperm-male gametophyte | Common Name: Eastern White Pine Scientific Name: Pinus strobus Local to CIncinnati Area | \Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association (N. (n.d.). In Eastern White Pine. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://easternwhitepine.org/about | the male gametophyte, or pollen cone, is the part protruding over the ruler

6: Entry #3 Gymnosperm-Female Gametophyte Common Name: Colorado Blue Spruce Scientific Name: Picea pungens This plant is native to the western United States, but not coastal. The plant prefers high attitude and moist soil, and therefore is found growing alongside mountain streams. It prefers temperature precipitation and needs a dormancy period. | NDSU. (n.d.). In Picea pungens. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/trees/handbook/th-3-177.pdf

7: Entry # 4 Angiosperm-Perfect Flower | Common Name: Knockout Rose Scientific Name: Rosa radrazz This rose is a hybrid species made in Wisconsin, with no native habitat. However, it was created for and thrives in temperate mid-west zones of the United States. It prefers full sun and temperate rainfall and winter. The flower is perfect because it has both stamens and pistils in the same flower. This information found in textbook | Conard-Pyle Co. (2011, February). In Rosa 'radrazz" The Knockout Rose From Conard-Pyle. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.conard-pyle.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/koplants.plantDetail/plant_id/591/index.htm

8: Entry #5 Angiosperm-Complete Flower Common Name: Chinese Hibiscus Scientific Name: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Native to East Asia countries of China, India, Malaysia, and Philippines. Prefers a tropical/subtropical climate with a wet and dry season, and prolific rainfall with long days. The flower is complete because it has Stamens, Pistils, Sepals, and Petals on the same flower. | American Hibiscus Society. (2006). In About Tropical Hibiscus. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://americanhibiscus.org/aboutahs.htm | Staemen located behind pistils | Research for definition of complete flower found in textbook

9: Entry # 6: Dioecious Plant Common Name: Maidenhair Tree Scientific Name: Ginkgo biloba The last of it's phylum that remains today, this tree is from China. It is very adaptable to almost all soil conditions and pH, except wet soil or highly acidic or basic soil. It prefers full sun in it's temperate home, and finds success in temperate climates worldwide. The difference between monoecious and dioecious plants is that monoecious plants produce both male and female gametophytes on the same tree, while dioecious trees have either male or female gametophytes on any tree. This information was found in the textbook Ohio Department of Natural Resources. (2009, February). In Ohio Trees; Maidenhar Treee. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://dnr.state.oh.us/forestry/trees/maidenhair/tabid/5383/Default.aspx

10: Entry #7: Endosperm Common Name: Corn Scientific Name: Zea mays Native to Mesoamerica (Central Mexico to Costa Rica), this plant was domesticated in prehistoric times. It has been modified enough so that it can survive from tropical conditions, with ample rainfall and a wet and dry season, to temperate climates with 4 seasons and less rainfall, like that of the midwest United States. However, it's native conditions is a tropical wet/dry season climate. University of Illinois. (2007, October 16). In Tropical Maize for Biofuels. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/news/stories/news4169.html source of information and picture

11: Entry #8 Plant that Shows symbiosis with mycorrhizal fungi Common Name: Southern Magnolia Scientific Name: Magnolia grandiflora -Native to the Southeastern United States, from coastal Virginia to central Florida. It grows from warm to semitropical climates. Prefers very rich and moist loam soil, and is found along streams or on the outskirts of bogs. It's relationship with the fungi was discovered around the 1800's and their strong compatibility has been exploited by gardeners -The benefits of this relationship with the fungi are very advantageous to both parties. The fungi helps increase root surface area, and therefore increases root absorption. The fungi receives sugars made from the tree via photosynthesis. This information found in the textbook. US Forest Service Urban and Community Forestry P. (2006). In Magnolia grandiflora. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_2/magnolia/grandiflora.htm | Ruler is that little white sliver

12: Entry #9: Monocot Common name: Purple Sogo Orchid Scientific Name: Phalaenopsis lindenii This species of orchid is native to the Philippines, in the tropical moist lowland forests. It experiences a wet and dry season and prefers moist conditions but not completely saturated. IUCN Redlist. (2010, October 18). In Phalaenopsis lindenii. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/46371/0

13: Entry #10: Dicot (Eudicot) with compound leaf Common Name: White Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus americana Native to the CIncinnati Area Germplasm Resources Information Network . (2010, March 23). In Fraxinus americana. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?316687

14: Entry #11 Dicot (Eudicot) with simple leaf Common Name: Sugar Maple Scientific Name: Acer saccharum Native to Cincinnati Area Godman, R. M. (208, May 5). In Acer saccharum. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/acer/saccharum.htm

15: Entry #12 Bryophyte Common Name: Broom Moss Native to Southeastern United States, Mexico, and Oceania. While it is adapted to a degree of dryness, it is dependent on moist conditions and can survive most temperatures if there is constant moisture. Boreal Forest. (2005, April 2). In Broom Mosses. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://www.borealforest.org/lichens/lichen5.htm

16: Entry #13 Vascular Seedless Plant Common Name: Lady Fern Scientific Name: Athyrium filix-femina Native to Cincinnati Area Ohio State University. (n.d.). In Native Ohio Ferns Bulletin 865. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://ohioline.osu.edu/b865/b865_15.html

17: Entry #14 Edible Leaf Common Name: Basil Scientific Name: Ocimum basilicum Native to India, this plant prefers warm seasons, and a hot and dry environment with constant sun exposure. Plant Cultures. (n.d.). In Basil-Grow it. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://www.kew.org/plant-cultures/plants/holy_basil_grow_it.html

18: Entry # 15 Edible Root Common Name: Horseradish Scientific Name: Armoracia rusticana Native to southeastern Europe/West Asia. In it's native conditions, grows in a Mediterranean climate preferring slightly acidic soil and moderate rainfall. However, it has been cultivated to grow in almost any climate, for example, it can grow in all of the United States and Canada except the tundra regions. The main root is mixed into sauces for the pungent oil it makes upon being ground up. Smaller fibrous roots are used to make sauces of a lower caliber Horseradish Information Council. (n.d.). In Horseradish: Facts About America's Favorite Root. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://horseradish.org/homepage.html

19: Entry #16 Edible vegetable that is not a fruit Common Name: Romaine Lettuce Scientific Name: Lactuca sativa Native to Greek Islands and prefers slightly acidic soil which is not constantly damp and prefers average temperatures, emulating a the type of climate classified as Mediterranean | USA Gardner. (2010). In Growing Romaine Lettuce. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from | http://www.usagardener.co/how_to_grow_vegetables/how_to_grow_lettuce_leaf.php

20: Entry # 17 Edible Fruit Common Name: Early Girl Tomato Scientific Name: Lycopersicon lycopersicum This plant is a hybrid, whose patent is currently held by Monstanto, has no native habitat. However, it was designed to grow in any location of the continental United States, and it prefers moist soil within a slight pH range in either acidic or basic. It is favored for it's early bloom and harvest time. Growquest. (2003). In Early GIrl Tomato Hybrid. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://growquest.com/veg_tomato_early_girl.htm

21: Entry #18 Fruit that is specialized for dispersal other than digestion Common Name: "Crimson Queen"Japanese Maple Scientific Name: Acer palmatum This plant is native to Japan, China, Outer Mongolia, Russia, and the Koreas. This cultivar has been conditioned to grow in full sun within a temperature climate, needing average rainfall and an average winter ensure proper seed dormancy. About.com. (n.d.). In Red Japanese Maples. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://landscaping.about.com/cs/fallfoliagetrees/a/fall_foliage6.htm

22: Entry #19 "Heterotrophic" Plant Common Name: White American Pitcher Plant Scientific Name: Sarracenia leucophylla This plant is from the Southeast United States, in the bogs and bayous. It lives in hot climates, in acidic, nutritionally poor soil, but thrives in conditions that are less stagnant than other pitcher plants. It needs a summer and winter and is found in bogs, fens, and wetlands. This plant could be considered heterotrophic because it feeds on other organisms to get certain vital nutrients which it cannot find in the soil. It does this by tricking insects to falling into the juices in the bottom of the pitcher, whose smell attracts them. The juices then digest the bugs. It is not a true heterotoph because it does not use other organisms for energy, just for nutrients. State College. (2006). In Carnivorous Plants: American Pitcher Plants. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://sccarnivorousplants.com/temppitch.html

23: Entry #20 Parasitic Plant Common Name: European Mistletoe Scientific Name: Viscum album This plant is native to mainland Europe and western Asia. It grows in climates covering this entire area, from tundra to Mediterranean. The local soil and rainfall conditions are relevant only to the health of its host tree. As such, it will not survive in areas where rainfall is scare to the degree that the host would die from infestation. This plant is considered a parasite because it infiltrates the phloem and xylem of the host plant, using it for water and mineral resources. The leaves preform photosynthesis and can provide the plat with sugars. | Caldecott, T. (2010). In European Mistletoe. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from http://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/309-mistletoe Source of information and pictures

24: Entry #21 Modified Leaf Common Name: Venus Flytrap Scientific Name: Dionaea muscipula Native to North and South Carolina, in a very small area of bogs and wetlands. The plant lives in nutritionally poor soil, usually acidic, and within soil saturated with stagnant water. It needs a dormancy period which it accustoms to in its more temperate climate. The functions of the leaf are actually to catch insects. Each leaf has trigger hairs (trichomes) and when 2 are stimulated, the leaves close rapidly and lock. The inner part of the leaves then secrete enzymes and proteins which digest the bug in order to obtain nutrients which the plant cannot get from the soil. State College Carnivorous Plants. (2006). In Venus Flytrap. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://sccarnivorousplants.com/vft.html

25: Entry # 22 Invasive, alien, or non-native Ohio Plant Common Name: Garlic Mustard Scientific Name: Alliaria petiolata This plant is native to the entire European continent, Northern Africa, and much of China. Its name comes from the fact that when crushed, the leaves smell of garlic. The plant is biennial, the first year with leaves like that pictured. The second year, the leafs become shaped like an arrowhead, and white flowers bloom on top. It is accustomed to a wide variety of climates based on it's habitat, and Garlic Mustard can essentially handle most conditions. However, it is generally meant for temperature climates, with a strong winter to ensure dormancy is carried out. It is accustomed to moister soils. The plant was introduced around 1860 in New England by Europeans who used it as a spice. From there, it was spread across the U.S. by animals and humans alike. Garlic Mustard FAQs. (2009, February 17). In Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://www.ipm.msu.edu/garlicFAQ.htm

26: Entry #23 Cork of a deciduous Tree Common Name: Blue Ash Scientific Name: Fraxinus quadrangulata Native to Cincinnati Area Ohio Department of Natural Resources. (2008). In Blue Ash (Fraxinus quadrangulata). Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Home/trees/ash_bl/tabid/5329/Default.aspx | This cork came from the tree pictured after a storm required the top of this formerly much taller tree to be professionally cut

27: Entry #24 Epiphyte Common Name: Staghorn Fern Scientific Name: Platycerium bifurcatum This Staghorn Fern is native to Oceanis (specifically certain Australian and New Zealand islands) This plant is found in tropical conditions, relying on aerial moisture and rainfall. It grows on the sides of many trees as an epiphyte and thus receives more sunlight than most ground plants. An epiphyte is a plant which grows on other plants or objects for structural support, but derives its moisture and nutrients from surrounding debris, air, or rain, not from its structural host. University of FLorida EDIS. (2009). In Staghorn Ferns at a Glance. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg015 source for information and definition of epiphyte

28: Entry #25 Plant With a Medicinal Use Common Name: Common Foxglove Scientific Name: Digitalis purpurea This plant is native to most of western, southern and central Europe. Within this area, is found in temperate temperatures. The soil it is accustomed to does not need to be very moist. This plant is a biennial, so it is accustomed to a dormancy period in winter. It is used in many medicines to help regulate heartbeats that are too slow or have irregular rhythms. Also can be used to increase heart efficiency. Missouri Botanical Garden. (n.d.). In Common Foxglove. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/Plant.asp?code=C530

29: Bonus 1 Angiosperm with a Non-Insect Pollinator Common Name: Fuchsia Scientific Name: Fuchsia regia Native to Brazil. This plant is accustomed to a tropical climate, typical of a rainforest. It requires a high degree of sunlight and soil moisture. This plant is accustomed to a dry season-wet season pattern, which is why is lasts until winter temperate gardens. It's long stems and vivid red sepals are meant to increase chances of being pollinated by hummingbirds. Tropical Plants Catalog. (2011, November 20). In Fuchsia regia, Climbing Fuchsia. Retrieved October 20, 2011, from http://toptropicals.com/catalog/uid/Fuchsia_regia.htm Source of information Pancamo, D. (2010, September 10). Retrieved October 23, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ruby-throated_by_Dan_Pancamo_1.jpg Source of Hummingbird PIcture

30: Bonus #2 Edible 'Wild" Plant Native to Ohio Common Name: Dandeloin Scientific Name: Taraxacum officinale Local to Cincinnati Area While pictured are the leaves, the entire plant is edible. Fried flowers are a common recipe. The leaves are often used in salads as the main green leaf, or as garnish. Germany, E. (n.d.). In allrecipies.com. Retrieved October 23, 2011, from http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Dandelion-Salad/Detail.aspx Source of recipe National Phenology Network. (2004). In clonal variation in common dandelion. Retrieved October 23, 2011 Source of info.

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