BC: Pyramids of Giza | Cleopatra VII | By: | Temples of Karnak and Luxor
FC: Publisher Xavier High School | The Pyramid Pages | Journalist Matthew Livoti Peter Boustani William Corsi Chris Kennedy | Copyright 2012
1: Myrrh for sale or trade,looking for fine linen. | 3 lbs of Grain will trade for 30 sticks of incense. | Looking for Handyman/ Laborer for 3 weeks | Handmade Linen for 3 gold coins. | Custom Pottery Trading on the 4th! | Healthy and strong Farming slave for 5 golden rings of the Pharaoh | The Selling Stone (Ancient Ads)
2: The Rosetta Stone Commemorates the Ascension to the throne of Pharaoh Ptolemy V After the death of Pharaoh Ptolemy IV, 5 year old son, Ptolemy V Epiphanes will soon take over Egypt. Sosibius and Agathocles are two of Ptolemy IV’s closest ministers who had Arsinoe III, the wife of Ptolemy IV killed so that they could get the throne. It is claimed to be written on stone that that under his rule, he will lower the taxes that his soldiers have to pay. It also said that Priest will not have to pay for admission to get into the priest hood. Ptolemy said he will give the prisoners in prison another chance and he then ordered them to all be released. In commemoration of this great event, the Pharaoh has ordered that the events where to be outlined here be scribed into a stone. The events will be scribed in three languages so that it will transcend well into the future, and people will always remember the good that Ptolemy V has bestowed upon his kingdom. This stone was then discovered thousands of years later by the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. | Rosetta Stone
5: "Napoleon Bonaparte" | The Rosetta Stone which was carved during 205-108 (B.C.E) was recently discovered by one of Napoleons expedition forces. This is very important for our future of Egypt, so future generations can decipher our hieroglyphics and understand how perfect our way of life is. "Discovery of the Rosetta Stone removed one of the three principal impediments to progress in deciphering hieroglyphics lack of a bilingual inscription. Others were the nonexistence of a large corpus of accurately copied inscriptions and the false belief that hieroglyphics were essentially symbolic.*"They can go back and learn about our life as way as far back as the inscriptions of the time of Pharaonic Egypt to 394! They can learn about all of our great God-Kings such as Hatshepst and how she was the 1st female Pharaoh or Thutmose the 3rd who was our strong warrior king! They can learn about Ptolemy the 5th who is our current and strong pharaoh. They can even learn about our ways of mummification and we will go down in history. In order for them to completely uncover our history and secrets they must also decipher it in Greek and demotic. Im sure some genius "French linguist", will be able to. -Matthew Livoti August 15th, "1799" | The Rosetta Stone Is Discovered by Napoleonic Soldiers." Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale World History In Context. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. Document URL http://ic.galegroup.com:80/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&search_within_results=&prodId=WHIC&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2643450409&userGroupName=nysl_me_xavierhs&jsid=22ab228c1ffe29995b57c2205e838e8f *-(Background)- sentence 1 & 2 | The Rosetta Stone Is Discovered by Napoleonic Soldiers." Science and Its Times. Ed. Neil Schlager and Josh Lauer. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale World History In Context. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. Document URL http://ic.galegroup.com:80/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?displayGroupName=Reference&disableHighlighting=false&search_within_results=&prodId=WHIC&action=2&catId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2643450409&userGroupName=nysl_me_xavierhs&jsid=22ab228c1ffe29995b57c2205e838e8f *-(Background)- sentence 1 & 2
6: Cleopatra's Obituary | Cleopatra VII(69 B.C- 30 B.C) Cleopatra VII, was a great ruler and the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt before it was taken by the Greeks. She ruled between 51 B.C and 30 B.C and began to rule at the age of 14, which is unexpected for most rulers. No one is quite sure of how she died, but her mummification was quite unusual. The custom was usually to remove all of the organs in the body through the process of embalming, then the corpse was wrapped in linen, and then buried in a coffin to stop the decaying process. However, Cleopatra VII was not mummified and instead she was cremated
7: because of the Greek occupation at the time and cremation was the Greek custom. No one is sure what happened to Cleopatras ashes but it is believed that they were spread into the Nile.
9: The Ancient Egyptian civilization left behind great achievements that we are able to utilize in today's society. One of the greatest achievements of the Egyptian people that we have been astonished by for thousands of years was their incredible architectural and monumental structures that they created. Examples of these structures are the Pyramids of Giza, the Temples of Karnak and Luxor, the Temples of Abu Simbel and the Temple of Dendera. | Egyptian Architecture | The Pyramids of Giza
10: Calender System | The Pyramids of Giza were created during the time period between the 3rd Egyptian dynasty to the 6th dynasty. These pyramids served as a resting place for the Pharaohs after they died and they considered it the Pharaohs final resting place that was intended to never be disturbed. These were created during the Old Kingdom period by using the flooding of the Nile to allow for easy transportation of the immensely heavy blocks that were used to create the pyramids. These architectural structures are monumental and extraordinary. The Great Pyramid of Giza was created for the Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu(also known as Cheops) | The Pyramids of Giza | The Temple of Karnak | The Temple of Karnak was a temple created under the rule of Akhenaton, who was a pharaoh who attempted to change the beliefs of the Egyptian people from polytheism to monotheism. He created this temple in a way of respect and offering to the one God that he was attempting to make the one and only Egyptian God. Also, after the death of Akhenaton, these structures were soon vandalized in an attempt to remove any time of physical memorial of this time period in which the ides of monotheism were attempting to be passed in Egypt.
11: Temple of Luxor | The Temple of Luxor was an interesting structure as it was in the process of being built for three pharaohs life times yet only near the end of the life of the third did it complete. The Temple of Luxor was placed as the site of the famous city of Thebes.
12: Map of Ancient Egypt:
14: The Egyptians kept track of time through the Nile. They were well able to predict the different phases of the Nile such as low tide and high tide which is flooding. They always watched the Nile everyday to keep track of the flooding. After a while they noticed that the river begins its flooding stage once every 365 days, this is how the twelve month calendar came about. The Nile river floods every year. The Egyptians divided the year into 12 months of 30 days each, but it didn't add up to exactly 365 days. It left over 5 days which were then added. This was called the civil calendar. They didn't make leap years at the time which created gaps of 1 day every 4 years. This posed a problem after a while when they noticed the flooding of the Nile didn't come at the same "date" on the civil calendar. | How the Egyptians kept track of time.
15: It still came every season of every year. So to solve this problem, they divided their civil calendar year into 3 seasons according to the activity of the Nile. They were: The Inundation - this is the flooding stage. The Winter - when the waters receded and the fields were uncovered again. The Summer - this is the dry season.
16: The Egyptians divided the day into 24 hours, 12 for the day and 12 for the night. Each hour was named instead of numbered like we do today. The name would signify a particular religious or practical meaning. | So instead of saying 12 p.m. they would say "time of the midday meal." The Egyptians gave names to their seasons as we have names for our seasons. They are: Proyet Was the time of the year when the Nile receded. Because the temperatures were much cooler than other times of the year this was the perfect time for the farmers to sow their crops. Proyet occurred normally from December to March. | (continued)
17: The Egyptians used the sun to keep track of time. | An Egyptian clock.
18: The Egyptian Sun-God Ra
19: Shumo Was summertime for the Egyptians. Lasting from March to July it was a dry time when the crops were harvested and was often one of the busiest times of the year. Because the crops were now in it was also the time when the tax collectors showed up for the Pharoah's share. Cleopatra The vast majority of Egypt’s many hundreds of queens, although famed throughout their own land, were more or less unknown in the outside world. As the dynastic age ended and the hieroglyphic script was lost, the queens’ stories were forgotten and their monuments buried under Egypt’s sands. Cleopatra lived in an age of literature, where she was well educated.
20: A ruler named Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) realized that Roman history should be recorded in a way that confirmed his right to rule. Cleopatra was born in 69 B.C. in Alexandria, Egypt. She died August 12, 30 B.C. She was a daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes. Cleopatra married her younger brother Ptolemy the 8th and after his death, married her younger brother Ptolemy 14th. Later on throughout her life, she married the Roman Mark Antony. Cleopatra had one son by the name of Caesa.Macedonians who had gone to Egypt with Alexander the Great.
22: How the Egyptians solved the calendar problem. Augustus realized that the two calendars were off, therefore he created the leap year where there would be five extra days, this would also solve the problem with the Nile. They would use the five extra days for feasting and relaxing.
23: An Egyptian Calendar