BC: The End
FC: Civilizations on the River By:Rachael lee
1: Table Of contents Mesopotamia....p.2-4 Indus.....P.5-7 China....P.8-10 Egypt.....p.11-13
2: Mesopotamia | 1. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers frame Mesopotamia as they flow southeastward to the Persian Gulf. They flood at least once a year. 2. To provide water, Sumerians dug irrigation ditches that carried river water to their fields and allowed them to produce a surplus of crops. 3. Each city surrounding the land it controlled formed a city-state, which functioned much as an independent country does today. 4. After 2500 B..C., many Sumerian city-states came under the rule of dynasties, which is a series of rulers from a single family.
3: 5. Sumerians feared Enlil, the god of storm and air, as "the raging flood that has no rival". Demons known as ugallu protected humans from the evil demons who caused disease, misfortune, and misery. 6. The Sumerians built impressive ziggurats where they offered rich sacrifices of animals, food, and wine. 7.Sumerians created a system of writing called cuneiform. One of the first known maps was made on a clay tablet in about 2300 B.C.
4: 8. The Sumerian civilization came up with what we call social classes.Kings, landlords, and some priests made up the high level in Sumerian society. Wealthy merchants ranked next. Many ordinary Sumerian people work with their hands in fields and workshops. The lowest level of society were the slaves. 9.Arithmetic and geometry were invented by the Sumerians in order to erect city walls and buildings, plan irrigation, and survey flooded fields. 10. Hammurabi had 282 laws dealing with everything that happened in the community. Rule #143 states "If the woman is at fault, she shall be thrown into the river."
5: Indus | 1. The Indian Subcontinent is often referred to as the landmass that includes India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.This subcontinent has a wall that separates this region from the rest of the Asian continent, of the highest mountains in the world-Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and Himalayan ranges. 2. The Indus and Ganges are the most important links from the interior of the continent to the sea. Indus is also located between two important rivers. 3. Housing in Harappan cities show that social divisions in the society were not great. Artifacts like clay and wooden children's toys suggest the society was prosperous enough to afford the production of nonessential goods. There was few weapons of warfare found.
6: 4. The Harappan culture developed a written language, which is in contrast to cuneiform and heiroglyphics, because of its impossibility to be deciphered. Their language was found on stamps and seals made of carved stone that was used for trading pottery and tools. 5. The uniformity in the cities planning and construction suggests that the Indus peoples had developed a strong central government. 6. The Indus peoples built extensive and modern-looking plumbing systems. In Mohenjo-daro; almost every house had a private bathroom and toilet. Only until the 19th and 20th centuries did any other civilization achieve this level of convenience.
7: 7. Harappa was partially built on mud-brick platforms to protect it from flooding; therefore, it is a good example of city planning. 8. The rulers of the Harappan civilization are believed to have close ties to religion. Archaeologists think that the culture was a theocracy, but no site of the temple has been found. 9.The Harappans conducted a thriving trade with peoples in the region. The Indus River provided an excellent means of transportation for trade goods. 10. Around 1750 B.C., the quality of building in the Indus valley cities declined, and the cities gradually fell into decay. The fate of the cities remained mysterious until the 1970's.
8: China | 1. The Huang He (Yellow River) and the Chang Tiang (Yangtze River) both flow from the mountainous west to the Pacific Ocean. The Yellow River contains loess, which is blown by desert winds to the west and north. The Yangtze River flows east to the Yellow Sea. 2. China's natural boundaries did not completely protect these settlers from outsiders. Invasions occurred from the west and north, again and again in Chinese history. 3. Shang society was sharply divided between nobles and peasants. A ruling class of warrior-nobles headed by a king governed the Shang.
9: 4.Family was closely linked with religion; the Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living members of the family. 5. Shang KIngs consulted with the gods through the use of oracle bones, animal and tortoise shells on which priests had scratched questions for the gods. 6. Each character generally stands for one syllable or unit of language in the Chinese method of writing. One could read Chinese without being able to speak a word of it. 7. The Mandate of Heaven became central to the Chinese view of government. The Mandate of Heaven might pass to another noble family. This was the Chinese explanation for rebellion, civil war, and the rise of a new dynasty.
10: 8. The Zhou Dynasty produced roads and canals, which were built to stimulate trade and agriculture. The Zhou Dynasty also produced coin money and blast furnaces. 9. The Chinese system of writing had one advantage. People in all parts of China could learn the same system of writing, even if their spoke languages were very different. Also, the Chinese language helped unify a large, diverse land. 10. Since family was central to Chinese society, the most important virtue was respect for one's parents. Women were expected to obey their fathers, husbands, and later, their own sons. The men made the decisions and controlled the family's property.
11: Egypt | 1. Ancient Egyptians lived along the Nile from the mouth well into the interior of Africa. 2. Egyptian civilizations that took place along the banks of the Nile were very different from the collection of city-states in Mesopotamia, because Egypt was united into a single kingdom. This allowed it to enjoy a high degree of unity, stability, and cultural continuity over a period of 3000 years. 3. Every year in July, rains and melting snow from the mountains of east Africa caused the Nile River to rise and spill over its banks. This annual flooding brought the water and rich soil that allowed sediments to grow.
12: 4. Egyptians living in farming villages as far back as 5000 B.C., maybe even earlier. Each of the villages had its own rituals, gods, and chieftain. 5. Narmer created a double crown from the red and white crowns; this symbolized Egypt as a United Kingdom. 6. Egyptians believed that the pharaoh bore responsibility for the kingdom's well-being. They also believed the pharaoh caused the sun to rise, the Nile to flood, and the crops to grow. 7. Egyptians believed in a life that would be continued after death; they also believed they would be judged for their deeds when they die. 8. Egyptians invented a writing sheet that worked better than anything else they had used before. It was made of damped and pressed papyrus reeds. As the reeds dried, the sap glued the strips together into paperlike sheets.
13: 9. Scribes were Egyptians that used an early form of geometry to survey and reset property boundaries after the annual floods. 10. Both Egyptian men and woman applied make up, called kohl, to their eyes, which softened the glare of the sun and protected their skin from dry air.