FC: Province of Place to Terpakistan: | A Proposal | By Ambassadors: Jomela Cadete Cosette Termini
1: From the people of the Province of Place... | As allies with the country of Terpakistan, we have taken it into our hands to help you rebuild your country after the destruction of war. Using examples from the great country of USA, we bring forth a proposal on how to rebuild your great country.
2: Issue 1: Slavery | Since slavery was the catalyst for the bloody Civil War in Terpakistan, it is necessary that this issue must be dealt with first. | 13th Amendment - Banned slavery 14th Amendment - Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the US. This prevented states from depriving anyone of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. States also could not deny anyone “equal protection of the laws”. Black Codes - Severely limited African Americans rights. It required African Americans to enter into labor contracts. African American children had to accept apprenticeships and were usually beaten. This also required African Americans to get licenses in order to hold nonagricultural jobs. | Here are a few examples of how the post-Civil War America dealt with the issue of slavery.
3: Civil Rights Act of 1875 – granted citizenship to anyone born in the United States with the exception of Native Americans. This allowed African Americans to own property and the right to be treated equally in court. The Federal Government was able to sue anyone who violated these rights. Freedmen’s Bureau – helped freed slaves find food and clothing. Also helped freedmen find work and negotiate labor contracts. Helped deal with grievances between workers and planters. Helped educated African Americans, and provided housing for schools, paid the teachers, and helped established colleges. Port Royal Experiment – in 1861, the Union liberated the Sea Islands off the South Carolina coast. The white residents fled. 10,000 black slaves were left. With the help of Northern charities the slaves were helped to become self-sufficient.
4: 15th amendment- The first section made it so the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.The second section stated The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. | Civil Rights Act of 1866- The Civil Rights Act of 1866 granted citizenship and the same rights enjoyed by white citizens to all male persons in the United States "without distinction of race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude." President Andrew Johnson's veto of the bill was overturned by a two-thirds majority in both houses of Congress, and the bill became law.
5: Charles Sumner- During the Civil War, Sumner pushed for the emancipation of the slaves and introduced the 13th Amendment to the Senate in 1864. During Reconstruction, Sumner supported the policies of the Radical Republicans and introduced the bill that eventually became the Civil Rights Act of 1875, which outlawed racial discrimination in public places until the Supreme Court overturned the law in 1883. He was a strident critic of President Johnson’s Reconstruction policies and became an early and constant exponent of Johnson's impeachment. | Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 15 – These were orders General William Tecumseh Sherman issued during the Civil War on January 16, 1865. They took 40,000 acres of land along the Atlantic Coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. This mass of land was divided into 40-acre pieces of land. It was planned that 18,000 freed slaves families would settle there. However this never went through, as Andrew Johnson, Lincoln’s successor, revoked it.
6: The laws and bills passed during the reconstruction helped abolish slavery. However, these bills and laws needed to be specific, for example, The Civil Rights Act of 1866 stated that citizenship cannot be denied to any man, regardless of race. The 15th amendment stated that no vote should be turned away, regardless of color. These laws also should have other laws to back them up, for example. the 14th amendment and The Civil Rights Act of 1866 said there would be repercussions if anybody went against the law. One unsuccessful law passed, however, were the Black Codes. These forced African Americans into labor contracts, which were almost as if they were still slaves. African American children were forced into apprenticeships that sometimes put their lives in danger. Another thing that must be dealt with are the freed slaves. During the US reconstruction, the organization Freedmen's Bureau was successful in providing housing, education, and much more to escaped slaves.
7: Issue 2: Reuniting the Nation | 10% Plan – Attempts to solve how to bring Southern states back to Union. The plan started Dec. 1863. This offered amnesty (pardon) to Southerners who took an oath to be loyal to the US. When 10% of a state’s voters took this oath, they were able to organize a new state government. | Carpetbaggers – A term used on a Northerner who moved South during the Reconstruction period. Many Southerners thought these Northerners had gone to the South to take advantage of a war torn area. While this was partly true, some Northerners came to seek opportunities, and some wanted to help. Some Northern schoolteachers came to educate freed slaves.
8: Reuniting a previously war-torn nation is not an easy job, but Lincoln managed to do it during reconstruction. While many could say that the 10% Plan was a bit too harsh, sometimes measures must be taken for there to be a good outcome. Because of the 10% Plan, several states were able to be admitted back into the Union. Also, during the time period, carpetbaggers appeared the South. Despite their bad reputation, some of those people managed to help the African Americans in the south by helping give them education.
9: Issue 3: Reconstruction | Radical Reconstruction – Radical Republicans took over the Reconstruction policies after the election of 1866. With this they passed the 15th amendment, which let former African American slaves vote. This had a dramatic short term effect on the South. This abled African Americans to be included in the political process. However, this also angered white Southerners, and many fought back against the federal government’s policies.
10: Military reconstruction act – divided the confederacy, with the exception of Tennessee, into five military districts, with a Union general in charge of each district. Each state also needed to design a constitution acceptable by congress and had to ratify the 14th amendment. Under the watch of Union generals the states began holding elections and conventions. Because of this North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas were admitted back into the Union.
11: Presidential Reconstruction- When Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, his successor, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, took over and created a plan. Johnson's plan, published on 29 May 1865, called for the speedy restoration of Southern governments based on the whites electorate of 1861. His proclamation of amnesty offered pardons to all insurgents swearing an oath of allegiance to the United States except for high officers of the Confederacy and those owning property valued at more than $20,000. With the plan though, they were still eligible for individual pardons. Johnson expected the restored states to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery, nullify the secession ordinances, and repudiate the Confederate debt, although he did not even insist on these conditions. The president's plan revealed that little had changed in the South.
12: Impeachment of Johnson – Republicans were scared Johnson would interfere with their plans by refusing to pass their laws. They knew secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton agreed with them, so they passed Tenure of Office Act, which required all orders from the president to go through the headquarters of the general army. It required senate’s approval to remove a government official, this way, Stanton couldn’t get fired. But Johnson fired Stanton anyway. He was impeached by the house of representatives for going against the Tenure of Office and for removing commanders in the Southern military for supporting republicans. He was charged with undermining Reconstruction. On May 16, 1868, senate voted. Johnson was one vote away from being impeached. Democrat senators believed this would set a precedent to impeach a president for not agreeing with congressional policies.
13: US v Cruikshank- United States v. Cruikshank was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law. It was one of the earliest to deal with the meaning of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court said that because the right to keep and bear arms existed independent of the Constitution, and the Second Amendment guaranteed only that the right “shall not be infringed by Congress”, the federal government had no power to punish a violation of the right by a private individual. | Slaughterhouse Cases- Louisiana had created a partial monopoly of the slaughtering business and gave it to one company. Competitors argued that this went against the 14th Amendment. On April 14, 1873, the Court held an interpretation of the amendment and ruled that it did not restrict the police powers of the state. The Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment's Privileges affected only rights of United States citizenship and not state citizenship.
14: Although not all the reconstruction efforts were successful, there were a few that were. The Radical Reconstruction plan helped African Americans get a say in government, and the military reconstruction act helped bring more states back into the Union. | Johnson's plan however was one of the less successful plans. Johnson's plan allowed the secessionists to take a loyalty oath to the Union to get back in the Union. The Confederate states had to pass the 13th amendment, which freed the slaves. Congress did not like this so in return they began restoring the power to those who had rebelled in the first place. | The Slaughterhouse case is one that should be remembered even though the case wasn't the biggest success. Though the ruling was that there was no violation, the cases showed the interpretation of the 14th Amendment, which should be followed even now. Cases like these should be held to keep order and justification of laws a priority. Even if the Slaughterhouse Case itself wasn't "successful", the recognition of the case and what it did is significant to any country going through Reconstruction.
15: Issue 4: Society | Hiram Revels – Became the first African American in senate. He was first reluctant to enter politics. He overcame this and was able to gain the respect of both whites and blacks. | Colfax Massacre – Violence erupted on April 13, 1873, in Colfax Louisiana when The White League, a white supremacist group clashed with a state militia that was nearly all black. Over 100 black men were killed compared to only three members from the White League dying. Half the black men that died were murdered after the militia had surrendered. This proved to Ulysses S. Grant that it was going to be a challenge to guarantee the rights and safety of blacks who lived in the South.
16: Ulysses S. Grant- Grant served as commander in chief of the Union army during the Civil War, leading the North to victory over the Confederacy. Only a week before Grant's inauguration, Congress proposed the Fifteenth Amendment, which declared that the right to vote could not be denied "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." During Reconstruction, Grant pursued the Ku Klux Klan in South Carolina and effectively disabled the organization until the 1920s, but racism still abounded in the South. | Redemption- By 1877 Southern white resistance and the withdrawal of federal supervision brought about the "redemption" of the South and African Americans were disenfranchised. The redemption measures enforced greater racial separation and increased white intimidation and violence. | Scalawag- A scotch Irish word used for a white Southerner who supported Reconstruction policies after the American Civil War
17: Ku Klux Klan- The first Klan flourished in the South in the 1860s. The KKK advocated issues such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism. The KKK led to The Civil Rights Act of 1871. This act was also known as the Klan Act. This act was passed to protect southern blacks from the Ku Klux Klan by providing a civil remedy for abuses then being committed in the South. Under the Klan Act during Reconstruction, federal troops were used rather than state militias to enforce the law, and Klansmen were prosecuted in federal court, where juries were often black. | The Panic of 1873- The most important event of President Grant's second term in office was the severe financial depression. The depression was known as the Great Depression until the 1930s. In September 1873, Jay Cooke & Company found itself unable to market several million dollars in Northern Pacific Railway bonds. Another cause of the Panic of 1873 was the Coinage Act. The German Empire, in 1871, decided to cease the coining of silver thaler coins. people turned against the Republican Government which at that time was being led by President Ulysses S. Grant. They turned to the Democrats for help. This was bad news for the African-Americans because they now a social reform for them seemed less possible.
18: As far as Reconstructing goes, two major points can be found through previous resolved issues. Anything having to do with a "secret society" based group such as the KKK needs to be stopped before outbursts become violent. I would say the KKK was successful at what they were doing when they were though. Ulysses S Grant was also highly honored and a very successful man in both aspects of his life before and after presidency. He is an important figure to look to when coming to conclusions. His tactic of fighting was good foot notes for any country to have going into war. Reconstruction was a priority to Grant. In fact, In his inaugural address, Grant stated that the issue of suffrage was "likely to agitate the public" until settled." Grant pursued the Ku Klux Klan in South Carolina and effectively stopped the organization until the 1920s. Doing what was mentioned should be done to organizations of the kind.
19: Issue 5: Economy | Tenant Farming and Sharecropping- Recovery of the southern economy depended on getting the freedmen back into the cotton fields. Sharecropping has benefits and costs for both the owners and the croppers. It encourages the cropper to remain on the land throughout the harvest season to work the land. Since the cropper pays in shares of his harvest though, owners and croppers share the risk of harvests being large or small and prices being high or low. Because tenants benefit from larger harvests, they have an incentive to work harder and invest in better methods than in a slave plantation system. Sharecropping was not as economically efficient. Tenant farming is an agricultural production system in which landowners contribute their land and often heavy management. Depending on the contract, tenants can make payments to the owner either of a fixed portion of the product, in cash or in a combination.
20: Tenant farming was much more success than Sharecropping profit wise. Sharecropping was not economically efficiant compared to tenant farming because tenants benefit from larger harvests. As a result they then work harder and invest in better methods than in a slave plantation system. Also, through sharecropping owners and croppers share the risk of harvests being large or small and prices being high or low. As for which to go about reconstructing a country with, I would say Tenant farming would be the better choice.
21: Compromise of 1877- Results of the Presidential Elections of 1876 could not indicate a clear winner for the post of the next US president. The results of the election that was contested between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, and Democrat Samuel J. To come to a conclusion, the compromise had it so Federal troops were removed from the States in South, at least one Democrat be included in Hayes' cabinet, a second Transcontinental railroad be constructed in South using the Texas and Pacific Railway, and a legislation aimed at helping to industrialize the Southern States be passed. This compromise prevented the country from erupting in violence again after the Civil War. This compromise was successful in the sense it kept the country from becoming bloody and for war all over again. | End Solution
22: Not everything in Reconstruction was a success. However, despite the downfalls, Reconstruction was able to do away with slavery, change society, and even give African Americans a say in the government. Despite the plans not being pitch perfect, following the steps of the plans that did succeed in the US years ago could give Terpakistan a head start on reconstructing their country.
23: This Political cartoon in my opinion binds together the whole Reconstruction area. The KKK and what appears to be a white man are holding hands to possibly indicate how both were taking a rather violent tole on the African Americans below the skull. The skull can represent the harsh outcomes that are possible through the combination of the forces above the African Americans. The African Americans also seem to be pondering what to do next, as slaves were through the Reconstruction area as they were led to believe they would be freed, but the ending was more of a "betrayal" due to the Compromise of 1877.